2018考研英语语法大全

时间:2017-04-23来源:范文推荐访问:学习总结

  冠词(article)

  一、单数可数名词  单数可数名词前必须加冠词,a(an)表示泛指或类指,the表示特指或类指。

  例句: washington, who had begun to believe that all men were created equal after observing the bravery of the black soldiers during the revolutionary war, overcame the strong opposition of his relatives to grant his slaves their freedom in his will. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主句是washington overcame the strong opposition..., who引导的非限制性定语从句修饰washington,该句中又有一个that引导的从句作believe的宾语。

  译文: 在美国独立战争期间目睹了黑人士兵的勇敢之后,华盛顿才开始认为人生来平等。他克服了亲人的强烈反对,在遗嘱中给自己的奴隶们自由。

  例句: while the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers. (选自XX年part c)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中supplied to them by lawyers作定语修饰interpretations,undue reliance意为“过分依赖”。

  译文: 虽然法律报道的质量各不相同,但是许多新闻记者都过分依赖律师提供给他们的解释。

  二、定冠词the的用法

  在下述几种情况下须用定冠词the:表示世界上独一无二的名词,用在可数名词单数或某些形容词前代表一类人或事物,用在形容词、副词最高级和序数词和only之前。乐器名称前要加定冠词the。

  如:

  the sun the moon the universe the camel

  the blind the largest island the only student the piano

  例句: the universe works in a way so far removed from what common sense would allow that words of any kind must necessarily be inadequate to explain it. (1998年第19题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,what common sense would allow...作介词from的宾语从句,该句中还包含一个so...that...从句。

  译文: 宇宙运行的方式与常识所允许的构思相距甚远,因此任何一种语言也必然不足以把它解释清楚。

  例句: but somewhere from the 19th century onward, more artists began seeing happiness as meaningless, phony or, worst of all, as we went from wordsworth?s daffodils to baudelaire?s flowers of evil. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干结构是more artists began seeing happiness as..., 而as we went from wordsworth?s daffodils to baudelaire?s flowers of evil是一个状语从句。

  译文: 但是从19世纪的某个时候开始,当我们从华兹华斯的《水仙花》转向波德莱尔的《恶之花》时,越来越多的艺术家开始把快乐看做是毫无意义的、虚假的甚至是令人厌倦的东西。

  三、人名、地名等专有名词

  人名、地名等专有名词前一般不用冠词,但在海洋、河流、山脉、群岛以及含有普通名词的专有名词前一般加定冠词。

  如:

  the atlantic ocean (大西洋)

  the red sea (红海)

  the society for anglo chinese understanding (英中了解协会)

  the special economic zone (经济特区)

  例句: the four special economic zones(sezs) in guangdong and fujian provinces, 14 coastal cities and hainan island have specifically designed tax and other incentives for the foreign investor. (选自far eastern economic review)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 广东与福建两省的四个经济特区、14个沿海开放城市及海南岛都有专门为外国投资者制定的税收及其他鼓励投资政策。

  四、抽象名词和物质名词

  抽象名词和物质名词表示一般概念时,前面通常不用冠词,但特指时,则一定要加定冠词。

  例句: i admire the patience of scientific workers, which gives me much revelation.

  分析: 该句是复合句,包含一个由which引导的非限制性定语从句。

  译文: 我钦佩科研工作者的耐心,那给了我很多启示。

  五、动名词

  动名词前一般不加冠词,但表示确定特指含义的动名词前要加定冠词。

  例句: some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中requiring...在句中作主语补足语,对主语some uniforms作进一步解释说明,形容词短语possible with many types of civilian clothes在句中作定语修饰the home laundering。

  译文: 有些制服维护费用也比较昂贵,需要专业清洗,而不能使用洗涤其他普通衣物的家庭洗涤方式。

  六、一般不加冠词的一些名词

  1. 节日前一般不加冠词,如christmas,但也有例外。

  如:

  the spring festival(春节)

  the mid autumn festival(中秋节)

  the dragon boat festival(端午节)

  例句: before the spring festival, the leaders of the village made the house to house survey, inquiring in each family about their needs and problems.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中inquiring in each family about their needs and problems在句中作伴随状语。

  译文: 在春节前夕,村中的领导挨家挨户地走访,询问每个家庭的需要和问题。

  2. 一日三餐表示一般意义时,其前面不用冠词,但表示特殊含义时可用a或the。

  例句: my little son had a big breakfast this morning,and it was the very breakfast that made him uncomfortable the whole day.

  分析: 该句是并列句,其中第二个分句是一个强调句。

  译文: 小儿子今早吃得太多,就是这顿早餐使他一整天都不舒服。

  3. 公园、街道、体育项目、游戏等名称前一般不用冠词,季节、月份等日期前一般不用冠词,但表示特指时须加冠词。

  例句: long after the 1998 world cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing the disputed refereeing decisions that denied victory to their team.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中定语从句that denied victory to their team修饰decisions。

  译文: 尽管1998年世界杯早已尘埃落定,但失望的球迷仍然对那个使自己球队痛失胜利的有争议的判罚耿耿于怀。

  名词的所有格

  名词的格是表示名词或代词与句中其他词之间意义关系的形式,英语中格的形式有普通格(common case)和属格(genitive case),属格又被称为所有格,当名词在句中表示所有关系时,名词便采用属格形式,属格分为两种:一种是?s属格,另一种是由介词词组构成的of属格。

  单数名词加?s,复数名词加“?”(不以s结尾的复数名词仍加“?s”),如:

  a boy?s sister

  the children?s holiday

  the teachers? room

  例句: and if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, gordon says that by and large, “you could use today?s data and feel fairly confident.” (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干部分是gordon says that...。

  译文: 如果你需要预测人类在不久将来的身高情况以设计一种新的衣服,戈登认为基本上“你可以使用今天的(身高)数据,并且感到颇有信心。”

  用s属格时应注意以下问题:

  (一)复合名词在最后一个词后加“?s”

  如:

  my sister in law?s present (我嫂子的礼物)

  the commander in chief?s wife (总司令的妻子)

  the grandson?s toys (孙子的玩具)

  (二)由两个或三个名词并列组成的词组所有格

  由两个或三个名词并列组成的词组,如在最后一个词后加?s表示并列名词的共有关系;如各个名词后都加?s则表示并列各名词的所有关系,如:

  tom and john?s car/tom?s and john?s cars

  前者指tom和john两人共有的一辆汽车;后者指tom和john两人各自的汽车,故用复数cars。

  (三)s属格和of短语的所有格

  s属格和of短语都可表示所属关系、主谓关系、动宾关系,但表示类别时只能用?s所有格。

  如:

  women?s shoes (女鞋)

  students? books (学生用书)

  a master?s degree (研究生学位)

  例句: and even more incredible is the young brain?s ability to pick out an order in language from the mixture of sound around him, to analyze, to combine and recombine the parts of a language in new ways.

  分析:该句是倒装句,正常句序是the young brain?s...in new ways is even more incredible,主语中to pick out an order in language from the mixture of sound around him, to analyze, to combine and recombine...在句中作定语修饰ability。

  译文: 更令人难以相信的是,幼儿能从其周围杂乱的声音中识别语言顺序,并能分析和按新的方式组合与重新组合语言成分。

  名词的单复数

  (一)不可数名词

  a little/some/much/considerable/a great (good) deal of/a lot of (lots of) /plenty of/a large amount of/a large quantity of/a wealth of(大量)/heaps of (大量的) +不可数名词

  例句: the portuguese give a great deal of credit to one man for having promoted sea travel, that man being prince henry the navigator, who lived in 15th century.

  (1995年第14题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中that man...navigator是一个独立主格结构,进一步解释说明one man; who lived...是非限制性定语从句,解释说明prince henry。

  译文: 葡萄牙人给了这位促进海上旅行的人很多荣誉,此人便是15世纪的航海家亨利王子。

  例句: if humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.(选自XX年part c)

  分析: 该句是复合句。主句we may well believe...中带有that引导的宾语从句, if引导的条件状语从句中包含that引导的从句作realizing的宾语,短语made headway in...的意思是“在某方面取得进展”。

  译文: 每个机构的最终价值在于其对人类的独特影响,如果人类在对此的认识上已有所进展,那么我们也许完全可以相信这种经验已在与年轻人打交道的过程中学会了。

  (二)复数可数名词

  some/a lot of (lots of) /plenty of/a large quantity of/a wealth of/heaps of/a few/the number of/a number of/quantities of/a great many (of) +复数可数名词

  例句: plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they?ve apparently learned is when to stop. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是并列句,在第二个句子中they?ve apparently learned是一个省略关系代词的定语从句,修饰things。

  译文: 许多别的物种能够学习,而且它们已经明显学会的东西之一就是何时停止学习。

  例句: but a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. (选自XX年part b)

  分析: 该句是简单句。其中短语“in favor of ”的意思是“赞成,支持;有利于”。

  译文: 但在20世纪初,许多人类学家也反对文化特殊论,转而支持文化传播论。

  (三)单复数形式相同的名词

  meansseriesspeciessheep

  deerfishgrouse(松鸡)plaice(鲽鱼)

  swine(野猪)vietnamese(越南人)viennese(维也纳人)japanese

  chineseportugueseswisscraft

  aircraftspacecrafthovercraft(气垫船)

  例句: the data received from the two spacecraft whirling around mars indicate that there is much evidence that huge thunderstorms are occurring about the equator of the planet. (1996年第18题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干是the data...indicate that..., 其中received...mars作定语修饰the data;that huge...the planet是evidence的同位语从句。

  译文: 环绕火星的两艘宇宙飞船接收到的数据表明, 有充分的证据表明该行星的赤道附近正下着大暴雨。

  例句: crisis would be the right term to describe the decline in many animal species. (1999年第33题)

  译文: 许多动物物种日渐减少, 用危机一词来描述再恰当不过了。

  (四)下列两类名词只有复数形式, 与动词复数连用

  表示由两部分组成的物体名词,如:

  calipers(卡钳)glasses scales(磅秤)pants

  pliers(钳子)scissors trousers shoes

  jeans shorts(短裤)

  这些名词作主语时谓语动词用复数形式,前有a pair of修饰时,谓语的单复数由pair的单复数决定。

  例句: i?m going to weigh my luggage: are there any scales?

  译文: 我想把行李过一下磅,有磅秤吗?

  例句: the girl wears sun glasses, which were bought from the glasses? line, and a pair of old ones has been broken.

  译文: 姑娘戴着从眼镜行买来的太阳镜,而那副旧眼镜已经折断了。

  另外还有: arms goodsclothes

  contents headquarters minutes(会议记录)

  regards(敬意) wages respects(敬意,问候)

  thanks fireworks(烟火)archives(档案)

  例句: my wages are the principle source of my income.

  译文: 薪金是我收入的主要来源。

  (五)有些名词虽以s结尾,却表示单数概念,谓语动词用单数形式

  1. 学科名称:

  politics linguistics

  physics economics

  mathematics ethics

  electronics informatics

  mechanics(力学) statistics

  acoustics(声学)athletics

  phonetics(语音学)

  例句: talk to anyone in the drug industry, and you?ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered. (XX年第8题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,talk to anyone in the drug industry是祈使句,that引导宾语从句,since引导时间状语从句。

  译文: 与从事药品工业的人一交谈,你就会发现自从盘尼西林被研制出以后,遗传学是对药品研究最大的冲击。

  2.游戏名称,如: checkers(跳棋)、 darts(投镖游戏)、 billiards(弹子戏)、 cards(纸牌)以及专有名词,如 naples(那不勒斯),the united states,the new york times等,但表示瀑布、山脉、岛屿的以s结尾的专有名词常表复数。

  例句: today, the snooker billiards becomes an international sports activity that the people of various countries like.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the people of various countries like作定语修饰sports activity。

  译文: 今天,斯诺克台球已经成为各国人民普遍喜爱的一项国际性的体育活动。

  例句: naples is an important seaport of the southwest in italy.

  译文: 那不勒斯是意大利西南部的一个重要海港。

  (六)集体名词数的问题

  1. 有些集体名词后接单数动词,如:

  merchandisepoetry machinery furnitureluggage

  baggage foliage(树叶)

  例句: modern machinery has been installed in the company.

  译文: 公司已经安装了现代化的机械。

  例句: this class of merchandise is usually sold on d/p(documents payment) basis.

  译文: 这种商品通常在付款交单的基础上出售。

  2.有些集体名词后接复数动词,如:

  people police poultry clergy(教士)

  vermin(害虫)cattle militia(民兵)

  例句: these vermin are harmful to the plants, so they must be got rid of.

  译文: 这些害虫对庄稼有害,应该尽快把它们消灭掉。

  例句: all the poultry in hong kong were destroyed to stop the threat.

  译文: 为了消除威胁,香港屠杀了所有家禽。

  3.有些集体名词,如:

  audience boardfamily class couple crew

  committeegovernment jury party team public

  company

  做整体讲时,谓语动词用单数;当看做集体的各个成员时,谓语动词用复数。

  例句: my family are fond of playing bowls, so they never miss the program involved.

  译文: 我家人都喜欢顶碗的游戏,所以很少错过相关节目。

  例句: my family is a big one, and so it is called extended family by neighbors.

  译文: 我们家是一个大家庭,于是邻居们常称我们家为大家庭。

  注: 需要强调个体时,集体名词一般应使用单位词,如:

  three heads of cattle 三头牛

  a piece of luggage 一件行李

  (七)有些名词单复数形式不同,词义也发生变化

  例如: air(空气)——airs(样子,摆架子)

  anxiety(焦虑)——anxieties(令人忧虑的事)

  brain(大脑)——brains(智力)

  custom(风俗)——customs(海关)

  damage(损坏)——damages(赔偿金)

  delicacy(微妙)——delicacies(山珍海味)

  disorder(混乱)——disorders(小病,病痛)

  experience(经验)——experiences(经历)

  fear(恐惧)——fears(担心)

  glass(玻璃)——glasses(眼镜)

  joy(快乐)——joys(令人快乐的人或事)

  kindness(善意)——kindnesses(善行)

  pity(怜悯)——pities(不幸)

  people(人民)——peoples(民族)

  security(安全)——securities(证券,债券)

  time(时间)——times(时代)

  work(工作)——works(作品)

  authority(权威,权力)——authorities(官方,当局)

  例句: they want to expose those educationally disadvantaged students to creative,enriching educational experiences for a five year period.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中expose sb. to sth.意为“使某人暴露在……之下”。

  译文: 他们想让那些教育背景欠佳的学生接受一种既有创造性又能丰富人生的为期五年的教育。

  例句: the integration of independent states could best be brought about by first creating a central organization with authority over technical economic tasks.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中with authority over technical economic tasks是介词短语,作a central organization的定语。

  译文: 首先创办一个有权管理技术经济工作的中心组织,以便更好地实现各独立国家之间的结合。

  名词的单复数

  (一)不可数名词

  a little/some/much/considerable/a great (good) deal of/a lot of (lots of) /plenty of/a large amount of/a large quantity of/a wealth of(大量)/heaps of (大量的) +不可数名词

  例句: the portuguese give a great deal of credit to one man for having promoted sea travel, that man being prince henry the navigator, who lived in 15th century.

  (1995年第14题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中that man...navigator是一个独立主格结构,进一步解释说明one man; who lived...是非限制性定语从句,解释说明prince henry。

  译文: 葡萄牙人给了这位促进海上旅行的人很多荣誉,此人便是15世纪的航海家亨利王子。

  例句: if humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.(选自XX年part c)

  分析: 该句是复合句。主句we may well believe...中带有that引导的宾语从句, if引导的条件状语从句中包含that引导的从句作realizing的宾语,短语made headway in...的意思是“在某方面取得进展”。

  译文: 每个机构的最终价值在于其对人类的独特影响,如果人类在对此的认识上已有所进展,那么我们也许完全可以相信这种经验已在与年轻人打交道的过程中学会了。

  (二)复数可数名词

  some/a lot of (lots of) /plenty of/a large quantity of/a wealth of/heaps of/a few/the number of/a number of/quantities of/a great many (of) +复数可数名词

  例句: plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they?ve apparently learned is when to stop. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是并列句,在第二个句子中they?ve apparently learned是一个省略关系代词的定语从句,修饰things。

  译文: 许多别的物种能够学习,而且它们已经明显学会的东西之一就是何时停止学习。

  例句: but a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. (选自XX年part b)

  分析: 该句是简单句。其中短语“in favor of ”的意思是“赞成,支持;有利于”。

  译文: 但在20世纪初,许多人类学家也反对文化特殊论,转而支持文化传播论。

  (三)单复数形式相同的名词

  meansseriesspeciessheep

  deerfishgrouse(松鸡)plaice(鲽鱼)

  swine(野猪)vietnamese(越南人)viennese(维也纳人)japanese

  chineseportugueseswisscraft

  aircraftspacecrafthovercraft(气垫船)

  例句: the data received from the two spacecraft whirling around mars indicate that there is much evidence that huge thunderstorms are occurring about the equator of the planet. (1996年第18题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干是the data...indicate that..., 其中received...mars作定语修饰the data;that huge...the planet是evidence的同位语从句。

  译文: 环绕火星的两艘宇宙飞船接收到的数据表明, 有充分的证据表明该行星的赤道附近正下着大暴雨。

  例句: crisis would be the right term to describe the decline in many animal species. (1999年第33题)

  译文: 许多动物物种日渐减少, 用危机一词来描述再恰当不过了。

  (四)下列两类名词只有复数形式, 与动词复数连用

  表示由两部分组成的物体名词,如:

  calipers(卡钳)glasses scales(磅秤)pants

  pliers(钳子)scissors trousers shoes

  jeans shorts(短裤)

  这些名词作主语时谓语动词用复数形式,前有a pair of修饰时,谓语的单复数由pair的单复数决定。

  例句: i?m going to weigh my luggage: are there any scales?

  译文: 我想把行李过一下磅,有磅秤吗?

  例句: the girl wears sun glasses, which were bought from the glasses? line, and a pair of old ones has been broken.

  译文: 姑娘戴着从眼镜行买来的太阳镜,而那副旧眼镜已经折断了。

  另外还有: arms goodsclothes

  contents headquarters minutes(会议记录)

  regards(敬意) wages respects(敬意,问候)

  thanks fireworks(烟火)archives(档案)

  例句: my wages are the principle source of my income.

  译文: 薪金是我收入的主要来源。

  (五)有些名词虽以s结尾,却表示单数概念,谓语动词用单数形式

  1. 学科名称:

  politics linguistics

  physics economics

  mathematics ethics

  electronics informatics

  mechanics(力学) statistics

  acoustics(声学)athletics

  phonetics(语音学)

  例句: talk to anyone in the drug industry, and you?ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered. (XX年第8题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,talk to anyone in the drug industry是祈使句,that引导宾语从句,since引导时间状语从句。

  译文: 与从事药品工业的人一交谈,你就会发现自从盘尼西林被研制出以后,遗传学是对药品研究最大的冲击。

  2.游戏名称,如: checkers(跳棋)、 darts(投镖游戏)、 billiards(弹子戏)、 cards(纸牌)以及专有名词,如 naples(那不勒斯),the united states,the new york times等,但表示瀑布、山脉、岛屿的以s结尾的专有名词常表复数。

  例句: today, the snooker billiards becomes an international sports activity that the people of various countries like.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the people of various countries like作定语修饰sports activity。

  译文: 今天,斯诺克台球已经成为各国人民普遍喜爱的一项国际性的体育活动。

  例句: naples is an important seaport of the southwest in italy.

  译文: 那不勒斯是意大利西南部的一个重要海港。

  (六)集体名词数的问题

  1. 有些集体名词后接单数动词,如:

  merchandisepoetry machinery furnitureluggage

  baggage foliage(树叶)

  例句: modern machinery has been installed in the company.

  译文: 公司已经安装了现代化的机械。

  例句: this class of merchandise is usually sold on d/p(documents payment) basis.

  译文: 这种商品通常在付款交单的基础上出售。

  2.有些集体名词后接复数动词,如:

  people police poultry clergy(教士)

  vermin(害虫)cattle militia(民兵)

  例句: these vermin are harmful to the plants, so they must be got rid of.

  译文: 这些害虫对庄稼有害,应该尽快把它们消灭掉。

  例句: all the poultry in hong kong were destroyed to stop the threat.

  译文: 为了消除威胁,香港屠杀了所有家禽。

  3.有些集体名词,如:

  audience boardfamily class couple crew

  committeegovernment jury party team public

  company

  做整体讲时,谓语动词用单数;当看做集体的各个成员时,谓语动词用复数。

  例句: my family are fond of playing bowls, so they never miss the program involved.

  译文: 我家人都喜欢顶碗的游戏,所以很少错过相关节目。

  例句: my family is a big one, and so it is called extended family by neighbors.

  译文: 我们家是一个大家庭,于是邻居们常称我们家为大家庭。

  注: 需要强调个体时,集体名词一般应使用单位词,如:

  three heads of cattle 三头牛

  a piece of luggage 一件行李

  (七)有些名词单复数形式不同,词义也发生变化

  例如: air(空气)——airs(样子,摆架子)

  anxiety(焦虑)——anxieties(令人忧虑的事)

  brain(大脑)——brains(智力)

  custom(风俗)——customs(海关)

  damage(损坏)——damages(赔偿金)

  delicacy(微妙)——delicacies(山珍海味)

  disorder(混乱)——disorders(小病,病痛)

  experience(经验)——experiences(经历)

  fear(恐惧)——fears(担心)

  glass(玻璃)——glasses(眼镜)

  joy(快乐)——joys(令人快乐的人或事)

  kindness(善意)——kindnesses(善行)

  pity(怜悯)——pities(不幸)

  people(人民)——peoples(民族)

  security(安全)——securities(证券,债券)

  time(时间)——times(时代)

  work(工作)——works(作品)

  authority(权威,权力)——authorities(官方,当局)

  例句: they want to expose those educationally disadvantaged students to creative,enriching educational experiences for a five year period.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中expose sb. to sth.意为“使某人暴露在……之下”。

  译文: 他们想让那些教育背景欠佳的学生接受一种既有创造性又能丰富人生的为期五年的教育。

  例句: the integration of independent states could best be brought about by first creating a central organization with authority over technical economic tasks.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中with authority over technical economic tasks是介词短语,作a central organization的定语。

  译文: 首先创办一个有权管理技术经济工作的中心组织,以便更好地实现各独立国家之间的结合。

  动词

  动词是表示动作或状态的词,根据其意义和作用,动词可分为实义动词、系动词、情态动词和助动词。动词涉及的内容很多,本书仅就研究生考试中常涉及的动词时态、时态一致以及部分情态动词作深入讲解。

  一、时态(tense)

  时态是表示动作发生的时间和表现方式的一种动词形式,英语动词的时态有16种,但在研究生考试以及其他考试中常考的时态只有几种。不管何种时态,所包含的主要内容都是相同的,即时态的构成以及用法。这里着重讲解重要时态的用法。

  (一)一般现在时(simple present tense)

  1. 表示客观真理或科学事实。

  例句: the moon has a mass that is nearly one hundred times less than that of the earth;in consequence, the force of gravity at the moon?s surface is only one sixth of that at the earth?s surface.

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that is nearly...less than that of the earth修饰a mass;in consequence后是另一个并列句。

  译文: 月球的质量差不多是地球质量的1/100,因此月球表面的引力只有地球表面引力的1/6。

  例句: one difficulty in translation lies in obtaining a concept match. by this is meant that a concept in one language is lost or changed in meaning in translation. (XX年第8题)

  分析: 该句由两个句子构成,前一个是简单句,后一个句子是复合句;that后是一宾语从句。

  译文: 翻译中的一个难点在于找到一个相对应的概念。这就是说,在翻译过程中一种语言的概念会丢失或发生意义上的改变。

  2. 表示现在反复发生或习惯性的动作以及存在的状态,常与always,often,usually, sometimes, once a week,seldom,never等时间状语连用。

  例句: it?s usually the case that people seldom behave in a rational way when in a furious state.

  分析: 该句是复合句,从句that people seldom behave in a rational way是the case的同位语;when后省略了people are。

  译文: 人们在暴怒时通常会丧失理智。

  例句: physicians frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干部分为physicians too often offer aggressive treatment...。分词短语frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient作physicians的后置定语;从句what is scientifically justified作介词beyond 的宾语。

  译文: 医生由于不能够治愈疾病,同时又担心病人失去希望,因而常常采用极端大胆的治疗方法,这些方法远远超过了科学所能认同的界限。

  3. 表示按计划进行的将来动作,常用come,arrive,catch,fly,leave,go,start等词。

  例句: when he comes, please inform him of all that i have just told you.

  分析: 该句是复合句。该复合句中包含when引导的时间状语从句和that引导的定语从句。

  译文: 他来时,请转告他我告诉你的一切。

  4. 用在时间或条件状语从句中表示将来的动作。

  例句: he will come the moment he finishes his work.

  分析: 该句中的the moment为连词,意为“一……就”,相当于as soon as。

  译文:他一结束工作就会来。

  例句: if it is fine tomorrow, we?ll go shopping.

  译文: 如果明天天气好的话,我们将去逛商场。

  5. 表示主语的能力、性格、个性等。

  例句: as an industry, biotechnology stands to rival electronics in dollar volume and perhaps surpass it in social impact by 2020. (XX年第25题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,surpass前省略了不定式to。

  译文: 作为一门产业,生物技术在营业额上可以与电子业相媲美,并且到了2020年还有可能在社会影响上超过它。

  例句: the director treats his staff as equals.

  译文: 主任对其下属一视同仁。

  6. 表示格言或警句。

  例句: a fence needs the support of three stakes; an able fellow needs the help of three other people.

  译文: 一个篱笆三个桩,一个好汉三个帮。

  例句: histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave;logic and rhetoric able to contend.

  译文: 读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩。

  (二)现在完成时(present perfect tense)

  1. 已完成用法: 表示动作在过去某一不明确的时间已完成,强调对现在的影响,这一用法常不带时间状语或可与不明确的时间状语连用,如: already,yet,ever,just,never。

  例句: i have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems. (XX年第48题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。在because引导的原因状语从句中又加入了由while引导的让步状语从句。

  译文: 我之所以将他(普通科学家)排除在外,是因为尽管他的成果可能有助于解决道德问题,但他承担的任务只不过是研究这些问题的事实方面。

  例句:the same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析:该句是复合句。主句的主干部分是the same dramatic technological changes have also increased the risk。that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices是一个定语从句,修饰changes;that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker,more visible, and much more damaging ways是risk的同位语从句,介词短语in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways在该同位语从句中作状语,表示方式,修饰谓语动词voice。

  译文:同样是这些重大的技术变革,在给营销商带来更多的(以及更多样化的)传播渠道选择的同时,也增加了风险,那就是热情洋溢的消费者将会以更快、更明显和更具破坏性的方式表达他们的观点。

  2. 未完成用法: 表示动作从过去某时开始持续到现在,还有可能持续下去,强调持续性,这一用法要带表示一段时间的状语,如: recently, these days, for 3 years, since XX, over the past等。

  例句: for example, it has long been known that total sleep deprivation is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet, upon examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 比如,人们早已知道,完全剥夺其睡眠对老鼠而言绝对是致命的。然而,在检验动物尸体时,那些动物看起来是完全正常的。

  例句: since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句。句中定语从句that is dangerous,boring,burdensome...修饰work, since...在句中作状语。

  译文: 自从人类具有了独创性以来,人们就发明了愈加精巧的工具来处理那些危险、无聊、麻烦或者仅仅是令人讨厌的工作。

  3. 现在完成时用于时间或条件状语从句中表示将来完成的动作。

  例句: i?ll help you when i have finished my work. i will return the book if i have finished it.

  4. 下列表达方式后要用现在完成时。

  this (that/it) is the first (second...)...

  this (that/it) is the best (finest/worst/most interesting...)...

  例句: this is the first time that china has had such negotiations with a g 7 member, the official said.

  译文: 该官员说,这是中国与七国集团成员首次进行这样的谈判。

  例句: this is the first time that he has felt really relaxed for months.

  译文: 几个月来他第一次真正感到放松。

  注意: 如果主句动词表示过去时间,从句常用过去完成时;如果主句动词表示将来时间,从句仍使用现在完成时。

  例句: it was the best picture that she had seen.

  it will be the best picture that she has seen.

  5. 有些时间状语常用于现在完成时态。

  如:

  up till nowso farat (for) the past (last) years

  in recent yearsup to present

  例句: for the past several years, the sunday newspaper supplement parade has featured a column called“ask marilyn”. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中called“ask marilyn”作后置定语,修饰a column。

  译文: 在过去的几年里,《展示杂志》周日增刊上出现了一个叫做“向玛瑞林提问”的特色专栏。

  (三)过去完成时(past perfect tense)

  1. 表示过去某时刻以前发生和完成的动作,即过去的过去,常用于主从复合句中。

  例句: she felt suitably humble just as she had when he had first taken a good look at her city self,hair waved and golden,nails red and pointed. (XX年第4题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。when引导的时间状语从句用的是过去完成时,所以主句只能用过去的时态;由于主句用的是一般过去时felt,那么其时间状语应用过去完成时,即 as后的完整形式应是as she had felt。

  译文: 她举止谦逊、得体,就像他当初见到她时她所表现的那样: 金黄色的卷发,尖尖的红指甲。

  例句: bolivar had received aid from haiti and had promised in return to abolish slavery in the areas he liberated. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是复合句。he liberated是修饰the areas的定语,在从句前省略了作宾语的关系 代词which或that。

  译文: 玻利瓦尔接受过海地的援助,作为同报,他承诺在解放的地区废除奴隶制。

  2. 用于hardly...when, scarcely...when(before), no sooner...than(刚一……就)句型中。当hardly,scarcely,no sooner置于句首时,句子结构要倒装。

  例句: no sooner had we reached the top of the hill than we all sat down to rest.

  hardly had the teacher entered the classroom when the pupils were in absolute silence. (be in absolute silence可译为“鸦雀无声”)

  3. 用于虚拟语气条件句中,表示与过去事实相反的假设。

  例句: i would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but i was fully occupied the whole of last week. (1997年第4题)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句。had it been at all possible是省略了if的倒装句,完整形式应为 if it had been...;本句but前是一个非真实条件句,表示与过去事实相反的假设。

  译文: 如果有一点可能的话,我都会到医院去看望他,但我上个礼拜整个一周都没有空。

  4.动词hope,expect,think,intend,want,mean,suppose,plan,believe等用于过去完成 时,表示未实现的希望、意图、计划等。

  例句: mr. pelkmans is not among those who had believed that the ec?s single market is threatened by the doubt building over europe?s continued integration.

  分析: 该句是复合句。定语从句who had believed...修饰those;that the ec?s single market is threatened...作believed的宾语;分词短语building over...作定语修饰the doubt。

  译文: 有些人原以为对促进欧洲持续整合怀有的疑虑会威胁到欧共体的统一市场,佩尔克斯曼先生并不这么认为。

  注意: 当连词after指明两个过去动作的时间先后顺序时,after从句中可用过去完成时,也可用一般过去时;在连词when引导的从句中,有时过去完成时与一般过去时可以互换使用;当before用作连词引导从句时,主句中过去完成时与一般过去时也可互换使用。

  例句: julia left the room after she had turned off (turned off) the light.

  when the teacher had left (left) the room, the pupils started talking.

  before he entered college, he had served (served) in the army.

  (四)一般将来时(simple future tense)

  一般将来时表示将来的动作或状态,其形式和用法如下所述。

  1. will/shall+动词,表示单纯的将来含义。

  例句: some day software will translate both written and spoken language so well that the need for any common second language could decline. (XX年第23题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。written and spoken作定语修饰language;that后是一结果状语从句。

  译文: 有朝一日,软件既能用来做文字翻译又能做口头翻译,而且能翻译得很好,以至于对任何通用的第二语言的需求都会下降。

  例句: hilton is building its own hotel there, which you may be sure will be decorated with hamlet hamburger bars, the lear lounge, the banquo banqueting room, and so forth and will be very expensive. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句。which引导的定语从句修饰its own hotel;从句中you may be sure是插入语,从句的主干部分为which will be decorated with...and will be very expensive。

  译文: 希尔顿正在那儿建立自己的酒店,你或许可以肯定它将配有(以莎士比亚剧中人物的名字命名的)哈姆雷特汉堡包店、李尔王休息室、班柯宴会包间等,而且价格非常昂贵。

  2. be going to+动词,表示按计划或打算在最近的将来做某事,也可表示对未来的预测。

  例句: as long as poor people, who in general are colored, are in conflict with richer people who in general are lighter skinned, there is going to be a constant racial conflict in the world. (1999年第18题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。定语从句who in general are colored和who in general are lighter skinned分别修饰poor people以及richer people;从句的主干部分为poor people are in conflict with richer people。

  译文: 一般来说,只要穷人与富人(也就是一般的有色人种和白色人种)之间有冲突,那么这个世界上的种族冲突就不会停止。

  例句: clearly, only the biggest and most flexible television companies are going to be able to compete in such a rich and hotly contested market. (选自XX年part c)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 显然,只有规模最大、应变能力最强的电视传媒集团才能够在这个精彩纷呈而又竞争 激烈的市场中生存。

  3. be to+动词,表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作或要求别人去做的事,常用来表示官方的命令、决定、禁止、许可等。

  例句:if gilbert and the philharmonic are to succeed,they must first change the relationship between america?s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hopes to attract. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析:该句是复合句。其中,在主句中,定语从句it hopes to attract修饰audience。

  译文:如果吉尔伯特和纽约爱乐乐团想获得成功,他们首先必须改变美国最古老的交响乐团和其想要吸引的新一批观众间的关系。

  例句: but his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. (XX年第49题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,本句主干为his primary task is not to think about...any more than...。定语从句which governs his activity修饰the moral code;其中not...any more than意为“不……也不……”。

  译文: 但是,他的首要任务并不是考虑支配自己行动的道德规范,就如同不能指望商人专注于探讨行业规范一样。

  4.be about to+动词,表示最近即将发生的动作,不接时间状语。

  例句: marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to pay compliments to his political leaders. (1999年第9题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。定语从句who is not about to pay compliments to...修饰a young man。

  译文: 马林是个有独立思考能力的年轻人,他不会恭维他的政治领导人。

  例句: his brother, who was a school teacher, was broke, his stomach ulcers were troubling him, one of his children had to have a serious operation, and his wife was about to have twins.

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,其中定语从句who was a school teacher修饰his brother。主干部分为his brother was...,his stomach ulcers were...,one of his children had to..., and his wife was about to...。

  译文: 他的哥哥是一位老师,已身无分文,并患上了胃溃疡,他的一个孩子要接受一次大手术,他的爱人将要生一对双胞胎。

  5. 位置移动动词,如: come,arrive,go,fly,catch,start,leave,travel的用法是be+现在分词,表示按计划即将发生的一个动作,常跟较近将来时间状语连用。

  例句: the spring festival is coming, and all the urban people are busy engaging in all kinds of preparations.

  分析: 该句是由and连接的并列句。

  译文: 春节就要到了,城里人都在忙着做各种各样的准备。

  6. 动词come,go,start,leave,arrive,return,begin常用一般现在时表示将来,表示已经预先计划安排好的或肯定发生的动作,主语常为事物名词。

  例句: by the time you arrive in london, we will have stayed in europe for two weeks. (1994年第1题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。arrive用一般现在时表示将来。

  译文: 你到达伦敦时,我们将已经在欧洲待了两周了。

  (五)现在进行时(present continuous tense)

  1. 表示此刻正在进行或在目前限定时间内不断进行的动作。

  例句: that may change fast: lots of proposed data security legislation is now doing the rounds in washington d.c..(选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是并列句,冒号后的内容是对前面所提内容的进一步说明。

  译文: 这一切很快就会改变: 很多提议的信息安全法规正在华盛顿逐一讨论。

  例句:it?s no surprise that jennifer senior?s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “i love my children, i hate my life,” is arousing much chatter—nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life enriching experience. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析:该句中,破折号前是一个复合句,其中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是jennifer senior?s insightful, provocative magazine cover story is arousing much chatter,引号中的内容与其前cover story为同位语关系;破折号后的内容是对前面陈述内容的解释,suggestion后是一个同位语从句。

  译文:詹妮佛·森尼尔见解深刻、颇具煽动性的杂志封面文章《我爱我的孩子,我讨厌我的生活》引发了热烈的议论,这不足为奇——没有什么比“育儿绝非完全是实现自我、丰富生活的体验”这样的暗示更能引发人们的讨论了。

  2. 表示现阶段正在进行的动作,而此刻并不一定在进行。

  例句: the future of this company is at stake: many of its talented employees are following into more profitable net based businesses. (XX年第30题)

  分析: 该句是并列句,冒号后的内容是对前面内容的进一步解释。

  译文: 这家公司的未来生死未卜,它的许多有才能的雇员正流失到赚钱更多的网络行业中去。

  例句: “data is becoming an asset which needs to be guarded as much as any other asset, ” says haim mendelson of stanford university?s business school.

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句which needs to be guarded as much as any other asset修饰an asset。

  译文: 斯坦福大学商学院的海姆·门德尔森说: “信息已成为一种资产,需要像其他资产一样加以保护。”

  3. 表示最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这一用法见一般将来时用法5)。

  4. 在时间或条件状语从句中,表示将来正在进行的动作。

  例句: take care when you are taking an exam.

  put him up if he is still finding a dwelling place.

  注意: 表示状态、感觉或情感的动词不用于现在进行时,如: forget, know, see, notice, love, like, hate, desire, believe, look, think, mind, have, seem, sound, remain等。

  (六)将来完成时(future perfect tense)和将来完成进行时(future perfect continuous tense)

  1. 表示将来某一时间以前已经完成的动作。

  例句: it?s reported that by the end of this month the output of cement in the factory will have risen by about 10.

  译文:据报道,到本月底这家工厂的水泥产量将要提升10。

  例句: the conference will have lasted a full week by the time it ends.

  译文: 会议在结束前将持续整个星期。

  2. 将来完成进行时则表示一个一直持续到将来某一时间的动作,可能还要持续下去。

  例句: he pointed to the deserted house and said,“i will have been living there by the end of this year.”

  译文:他指着那座被遗弃的房子说:“今年年底以前,我会一直住在那里。”

  (七)一般过去时(simple past tense)

  1. 表示在确定的过去时间里发生的动作或状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in XX等。

  例句: it was within the computer age that the term“information society”began to be widely used to describe the context within which we now live. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是复合句。其中it was...that是强调句型;which引导的定语从句修饰the context;within是定语从句中live后的介词,即live within the context。

  译文: 正是在这个计算机时代,“信息社会”一词被广泛用来形容我们所生活的环境。

  例句: the greeks assumed that the language structure had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in europe long before people realized how diverse the language could be. (XX年第61题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。that后是一宾语从句,作assumed的宾语;which引导的定语从句修饰前面宾语从句中提到的内容,其中又套了一个由before引导的状语从句,宾语从句how diverse the language could be作realized的宾语。

  译文: 希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们尚未认识到语言的千差万别以前就早已在欧洲扎下了根。

  2. 表示过去习惯性的动作或状态用used to/would+动词,前者表示今昔对比,即现在已不存在的过去的情况;而后者表示重复的行为,也可用来表示不规则的习惯。

  例句: the defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the iq score,even though iq tests are not given as often as they used to be. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句。even though引导让步状语从句:as often as后是比较状语从句。

  译文: 虽然智商测试不再像以前那样频繁应用了,但是,界定人类智力的术语似乎仍然只是智商的得分。

  例句: when the engine would not start, the mechanic inspected all the parts to find what was at fault.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中what was at fault在句中作find的宾语。

  译文: 当发动机启动不了时,机械师检查了所有的部件以便找出毛病。

  注意: “be used to+名词或动名词”,表示“习惯于……,对……已感到习惯”,可以指现在, 也可指过去,不能与“used to+动词原形”表示“过去常常做……(而现在不)”混淆。

  例句: during his year in the hospital, dr.joan was not used to treating patient this way.

  译文: 在医院那阵子,约翰医生还不习惯那样对待病人。

  例句:the rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析:该句是复合句。介词短语to marketing success 在句中作后置定语,修饰guide;that you got what you paid for是一个表语从句,what you paid for作got的宾语。

  译文:营销成功的大致策略过去常常就是你花钱买到自己想要的东西。

  3. 用于日常对话中,可用来表示现在的动作或状态,口气上较为委婉。

  例句: i wondered whether you?d attend to my sick daughter while i?m away.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 我想知道在我外出时,你能否替我照顾生病的女儿。

  二、时态一致(tense agreement)

  从句和主句谓语动词应在时态上保持一致。

  (一)主句动词是过去时态时,从句动词相应采用某种过去时态

  例句: darwin was convinced that loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character. (XX年第50题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干结构为darwin was convinced that...。宾语从句中有not only...but...引导的并列结构;短语be injurious to的意思是“对……产生危害,有害……”。

  译文: 达尔文确信,没有了这些爱好不只是少了乐趣,而且可能会有损于一个人的思维能力,更有可能导致一个人道德品质的下降。

  例句: publication of the letter came two days after lord irvine caused a storm of media protest when he said the interpretation of privacy controls contained in european legislation would be left to judges rather than to parliament. (选自XX年cloze test)

  分析: 该句是复合句。在when引导的从句中,the interpretation of privacy controls...作said的宾语;过去分词短语contained in european作后置定语修饰the interpretation;主句部分为publication of the letter came;另一从句中的主语lord irvine与he同指一人。

  译文: 艾尔文爵士曾声称,对于欧洲法律中所包含的隐私监督条款的解释工作将交由法官而非议会处理。此言一出,立即引起媒体的强烈抗议。两天后,他的信公开发表。

  (二)下列情况不受时态一致的限制

  1. 从句表示一个客观真理、一个人或物的经常性特点。

  例句: the speaker claimed that no other modern nation devotes so small a portion of its wealth to public assistance and health as the united states does.

  分析: 该句是复合句。claimed后接一宾语从句,其中not so...as意为“再没有比……更……的了”。

  译文: 那位演讲者声称,没有哪个现代化国家像美国那样在公共援助和保健事业方面投入的财富比例如此之小。

  2. 从句中有表示绝对过去的时间状语。

  例句: several international events in the early 1990s seem likely to reverse, or at least weaken,the trends that emerged in the 1980s. (1998年第36题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为several international events...seem likely to reserve,or at least...the trends;定语从句that emerged in the 1980s修饰the trends。

  译文: 20世纪90年代初期发生的若干国际事件似乎有可能使80年代出现的趋势逆转或 至少是受到削弱。

  例句: specialists in history and economics have shown two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was marked by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace. (选自1998年cloze test)

  分析: 该句是复合句,冒号后的两个并列句是前面two things的进一步解释说明,作其同位语,在后一分句中有两个并列谓语。

  译文: 历史学和经济学方面的专家已证明了两件事: 从1650年到1750年期间以极度贫 困为特征,而工业化当然没有使这种状况恶化,事实上可能改善了大多数平民的生活条件。

  3. 说话者强调动作正在进行或将要发生。

  例句: the staff of the airport i met at the lounge just now told me the plane i will take leaves at nine.

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句i met和i will take前分别省略了whom和which/that。

  译文: 刚才在休息室碰到的一位机场工作人员说我将乘坐的那趟航班9点起飞。

  4.从句是一个定语从句时。

  例句: whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far reaching consequences for the culture of a society. (XX年第65题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,全句的主句为whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism。which引导的定语从句修饰determinism;定语从句中的谓语动词states后连接两个由that引导的宾语从句。

  译文: 沃尔夫开始相信某种语言决定论,这种理论坚定地认为语言束缚思维,一种语言的语法模式会对一个社会的文化产生深远的影响。

  例句: if railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句。they argue是插入语;who引导的定语从句修饰shippers;分词短语 leaving remaining customers to...在句中作状语表示结果。

  译文: 他们认为,如果铁路部门对所有客户都平均收费,那么可以转而选择卡车或其他运输方式的客户就会那么做。这样一来,剩余的客户就要承担维持铁路经营成本的费用。

  5.从句是—个比较级结构时。

  例句: she used to be much more irritable than she is now.

  译文: 她过去比现在更容易发火。

  例句: there ought to be less anxiety over the perceived risk of getting cancer than exists in the public mind today.

  分析: 该句是复合句。其中than后的比较状语从句中省略了相同部分there,全句应该为 there ought to be less anxiety over the perceived risk of getting cancer than there exists in the public mind today。

  译文: 觉察到患癌的危险不应像现在这样在公众中造成过多的忧虑

  三、情态动词(model verb)

  情态动词所涉及的内容很多,这里主要介绍在研究生考试中出现的部分情态动词的重要用法。

  (一)表“可能”情态动词的用法区别

  大多数情态动词都表示“可能”,即说话人的一种推测,can,could表示潜在的可能性或理论上或逻辑推理上存在的可能性;而may,might则表示事实上的可能性,所以might,may,could,can仅表“可能”;should, ought, would, will表示“很有可能”,must表示“肯定”,上述表示可能性的顺序是由弱到强。

  例句: while comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgment. (XX年第50题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,在主句it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgment中,it是形式主语,真正在的主语是to rely on their...and make...;while引导一让步状语从句。

  译文: 尽管律师的见解和反应可能会提高报道的质量,但新闻记者最好凭借自己对重要性的理解自行判断。

  例句: and one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that后引导的是says的宾语;从句中not only..., but...是并列结构。

  译文: 一位权威人士说这些异常强烈的大脑活动,不仅可以被驾驭,而且还可以有意识地加以控制,以达到帮助睡眠和建立良好感觉的目的。

  例句: greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage is to be avoided. (1998年第5题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,to increase agricultural production为不定式作后置定语修饰greater efforts。

  译文: 若要避免粮食短缺,就必须加大力度来增加农业产量。

  另如:

  you might be right.(你也许是对的。)

  you ought to be right.(你很可能是对的。)

  you must be right.(你一定是对的。)

  例句: thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only with broader formal education. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句。句子主干是poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps。其中might not be表示对现在的推测,that may be possible only with broader formal education是一个修饰political changes的定语从句。

  译文: 这样一来,如果没有政治变革,贫困的国家或许不能摆脱贫困泥潭,而要进行政治变革,唯一的可能就是扩大正规教育。

  (二)can和be able to的用法差异

  1. can表示现在的能力;be able to表示过去或将来的能力。

  例句: the chairman of the board pressed on me the unpleasant job of dismissing good workers the firm can no longer afford to employ. (XX年第15题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。定语从句the firm can no longer afford to employ与先行词good workers间省略了关系代词whom;其中短语press sth. on sb.意思为“把……强加于某人”。

  译文: 董事长把解雇那些公司雇不起的优秀员工这件令人头痛的工作强加于我。

  例句: he is too young to be able to discern between right and wrong.(XX年第11题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 他太年轻了,还不能分辨是非。

  例句: despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year XX, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为researchers lately have begun to extend...。when引导的定语从句修饰the 1960s and 1970s;在定语从句中又套入一个由that引导的宾语从句;在主句中if not centuries的完整形式是if it is not centuries,it指代主句中描述的内容。

  译文: 尽管在20世纪60年代和70年代人们开始很乐观,认为晶体管电路和微处理器似乎在XX年前就能够复制人脑的行为,但是,最近研究人员已经开始把这一预言推迟——不是几个世纪就是几十年。

  2. could泛指过去能力,也可表示一种轻微的假设,was able to表示由技能产生的能力或表示过去某一特定的能力。

  例句: step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your doormat. light up the stove and you could burn down the house. (选自1999年text 1)

  分析: 这两个句子都是由and将一个祈使句和一个陈述句连接组成的并列句式。

  译文: 如果你走出去,可能会因门口的垫子滑倒而摔断腿;生炉子时可能会因此烧毁整间房屋。

  例句: during the past generation, the american middle class family that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure has been transformed by economic risk and new realities. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that once could count on hard work and fair play to...修饰 family。

  译文: 在过去的几十年中,经济上的风险和新的现实已经改变了原来靠努力工作和公平竞争就能保持收入稳定的美国中产阶级家庭的境况。

  例句: however, growth in the fabricated metals industry was able to offset some of the decline in the iron and steel industry. (XX年第19题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中in the fabricated metals industry为介词短语作定语修饰growth。

  译文: 然而,金属制造业方面的增长能够抵消钢铁工业方面的衰退。

  (三)情态动词+完成时态

  1. must have done表示对过去的肯定推测“一定发生了”。

  例句: my pain must have been apparent the moment i walked into the room, for the first man i met asked sympathetically:“are you feeling all right?” (1996年第2题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,the moment后引导一个时间状语从句;定语从句i met前省略了关系代词whom。

  译文: 当我走进房间时,我的疼痛一定很明显。因为我遇到的第一个人就同情地问我: “你还好吧?”

  2. can?t have done表示对过去的否定推测“一定没发生”。

  例句: you can?t have seen him in his office last sunday; he?s been out of town for several weeks.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 你上周日不可能在办公室见到他,因为他已经离开本镇好几个星期了。

  3. could/may have done表示对过去的肯定推测,语气弱于must have done“很可能发生了”。

  例句: nelson could have won the game, with a little more training and a better manager。

  分析: 该句是简单句,with a little more training and a better manager相当于一个与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的从句,即: if he had had a little more training and a better manager.

  译文: 如果尼尔森再多加强训练,再有一个好的教练,他就能赢得比赛。

  例句: the current state of affairs may have been encouraged—though not justified—by the lack of legal penalty (in america, but not europe) for data leakage. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,though not justified的完整形式应是though it is not justified,其中it指代破折号前所叙述的内容。

  译文: 目前此事的状况可能会被激化,虽然不合理,因为(在美国而不是欧洲)缺乏对信息泄露的法律制裁。

  4. couldn?t have done表示对过去的否定推测,语气弱于can?t have done,肯定意味强些,表“可能没发生”。

  例句: he couldn?t have been robbed in the street last night, in that he was with me the whole night.

  分析: 该句实际是一个复合句,其中短语in that为连词,引导原因状语从句。

  译文: 他昨晚在街上不可能被抢劫了,因为整晚他都和我在一起。

  5. would have done用于与过去事实相反的虚拟语气中,表假设。

  例句: the southern states would not have signed the constitution without protections for the “peculiar institution”, including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a man for purposes of congressional representation. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句的谓语形式是虚拟语气,without引导的介词短语作其条件状语;that引导了一个定语从句修饰clause。

  译文: 如果对“特殊体制”没有保护措施的话,南方诸州是不会签署宪法的。“特殊体制”中包括一个议会代表席位的条款,即一个奴隶得按3/5的人头计算。

  例句: a safety analysis would have identified the target as a potential danger. unfortunately, it was never done. (1996年第6题)

  分析: 这是两个并列句,根据后个句子可以得知这份安全分析从没有做过,所以前个句子是对过去事实的一种虚拟假设。

  译文: 安全分析本可以鉴别出预定目标是个潜在的危险。不幸的是,从未做过这种安全分析。

  例句: some individuals would therefore not have been caught, since no baited hooks would have been available to trap them, leading to an underestimate of fish stocks in the past. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,在主从句中都隐含了与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,分词短语leading to an underestimate of fish stocks...在句中作状语表示结果。

  译文: 个别的鱼没有被捕捉,是因为没有可用来捕捉它们的带饵的钩,这就导致了过去对鱼类资源的低估。

  6. might have done表示本来可能而实际未发生的行为,用在与过去事实相反的假设句中。

  例句: we didn?t know her telephone number, otherwise we might have telephoned her.

  分析: 该句是两个并列分句,前一分句we didn?t know her telephone number相当于一个与过去情况相反的虚拟语气从句,即if we had known her telephone number...。

  译文: 我们不知道她的电话号码,要不然我们就会打给她。

  7. should/ought to +have done表示“本来应该做某事而实际未做”。其否定形式表示“本来不应该做某事,而实际上已做了”。

  例句: now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. (选自XX年part b)

  分析: 该句是复合句,charging...是分词短语作状语表示伴随;原因状语从句because后又接一宾语从句。

  译文: 现在他正在起诉这家赌场,起诉该赌场在知道他已经上瘾的情况下而未拒绝他入场。

  例句: it was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,as引导一状语从句,主句中it为形式主语,真正的主语为that this primacy should have narrowed。

  译文: 随着其他国家日益富强起来,(美国的)霸主地位逐渐下降是不可避免的。

  例句:unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn?t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world.(选自XX年text 4)

  分析:该句是由but连接的两个并列分句。其中,在前一个分句中,if they shouldn?t have had kids充当wonder的宾语;在后一个分句中,the message后接一个同位语从句。

  译文:不快乐的父母很少被激发对“自己是否本不该要孩子”的思考,但不快乐的无子女者会时常被“孩子是世界上唯一最重要的事情”这一信息所困扰。

  8.needn?t have done表示本来没必要而实际已发生的行为。

  例句: as it turned out to be a small house party, we needn?t have dressed up so formally. (1998年第2题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,as在句中引导一个状语从句,表示原因。

  译文: 原来只不过是一个小小的家庭聚会,我们没有必要穿戴得如此正式。

  例句: you needn?t have done all those calculations! we have a computer to do that sort of thing.

  译文: 你本不需要做这些运算!我们有做这类事情的计算机。

  另外: must/can?t be+名词,表示对现在肯定或否定的推测,意为“一定是”、“一定不是”。

  例句: if no surplus is available, a farmer can?t be self sufficient.(选自XX年cloze test)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 没有余粮,农民就不能自给自足。

  例句: for there to be successful communication there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present. (1996年第8题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 要达到成功交流的目的,所有在场的人都要集中精神,积极参加讨论。

  9.didn?t need to do表示过去不必做,结果也未发生的行为。

  例句: he didn?t need to get up so early as usual because of illness, so he stayed in bed till the afternoon.

  分析: 该句是由so连接的两个并列句。

  译文: 由于生病,他不必像往日那样早起,一直在床上躺到中午。

  副词

  副词可修饰动词、形容词、副词、介词短语及整个句子。  例句: andrew, my father?s younger brother, will not be at the picnic, much to the family?s disappointment. (1997年第3题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中副词much修饰介词短语to the family?s disappointment。

  译文: 我父亲的弟弟安德鲁不会参加野餐,这令全家人非常失望。

  一、副词的分类

  1. 时间副词,如now, yesterday, today, ago, then, lately, soon, shortly, immediately, finally, recently, before, tomorrow。

  例句: americans today don?t place a very high value on intellect. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 现在美国人不重视智力。

  2. 地点副词,如here, there, above, below, downstairs, upstairs, home, somewhere, everywhere, elsewhere, down, up, anywhere等。

  例句: here is an example, which i heard at a nurses? convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,两个which引导的定语从句分别修饰an example和a story,前一个 which引导的定语从句为非限制性定语从句,起补充说明作用。

  译文: 比如说,在一次护士大会上,我听到了一个能很好地发挥幽默效果的故事,因为所有的听众都对医生持有相同的看法。

  3. 程度副词,如fairly, rather, very, almost, too, quite, enough, so, much。

  例句: she had clearly no intention of doing any work, although she was very well paid.(1997年第34题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,although后面跟的是让步状语从句。

  译文: 虽然付给她的报酬丰厚,但她无意去工作。

  4. 频率副词,如sometimes, often, usually, always, frequently, constantly, rarely, seldom, never, occasionally。

  例句: in addition, the designer must usually select furniture or design built in furniture, according to the functions that need to be served.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中built in意为“内嵌式的”。在方式状语中,that need to be served为定语从句,修饰the functions。

  译文: 此外,根据需要满足的功能,设计者通常必须选择家具或设计内嵌式家具。

  5.方式副词,表示动作发生或进行的方式,如quickly,fast,slowly,suddenly,carefully, well, properly, roughly, angrily, rudely。

  例句: you would be shocked if the inside of your bedroom were suddenly changed to look like the inside of a restaurant.

  分析: 该句是复合句,if引导的从句表示与现在相反的虚拟语气。

  译文: 如果你的卧室内部突然变得和饭店内部一样,你可能会大吃一惊。

  6.疑问副词,如when, where, how, why, who。

  例句: so where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time? (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是特殊疑问句。动词warn的ing形式作headlines的后置定语,表示一种主动关系。

  译文: 那么这次警告人们经济萧条到来的头版新闻又在哪儿呢?

  7.关系副词,如when,where,why。

  例句: yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could recreate the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the u.s., when the standard oil trust was broken up.

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句是it is hard to imagine...。其中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是to imagine that...to competition; that were feared nearly a century ago in the u. s.是定语从句修饰the same threats; when the standard oil trust was broken up是非限制定语从句修饰a century ago。

  译文: 然而,目前几家石油公司的合并是否再次给竞争带来威胁难以预料。因为美国一个世纪前曾由于合并引发了一场竞争危机,造成了标准石油托拉斯的解体。

  8.连接副词,如therefore, then, however, otherwise, hence, so, moreover, yet, consequently, besides, nevertheless, when, where, why, how。

  例句: it is generally recognized, however, that the introduction of the computer in the early 20th century, followed by the invention of the integrated circuit during the 1960s, radically changed the process, although its impact on the media was not immediately apparent. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中it是形式主语,真正的主语是that the introduction of the computer in the early 20th century。 followed by the invention of the integrated circuit during the 1960s作定语修饰the introduction。 although its impact on the media...是一个让步状语从句。

  译文: 然而,人们普遍认为,20世纪初出现的计算机以及随后在20世纪60年代发明的集成电路尽管对传媒的影响没有立即显现出来,但却彻底改变了发展进程。

  9.否定副词,如rarely,seldom,hardly,scarcely,never。

  例句:the magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only madonna and child image on newsstands this week. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析:该句是简单句。其中,分词短语showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby和 holding a cute baby分别作后置定语,修饰cover和mother。

  译文:展现“魅力妈妈怀抱可爱宝宝”的杂志封面并非本周报摊上唯一对“圣母与圣子”形象的描述。

  例句: growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients—notably, protein—to feed expanding tissues. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是growth demands calories and nutrients to feed expanding tissues。which rarely continues beyond the age of 20是修饰主语growth的非限制性定语从句。后面的破折号起补充说明作用。

  译文: 20岁后很少有人再继续长高,长高需要热量和营养,特别是蛋白质,以满足身体组织生长的需求。

  二、副词的位置

  1.修饰形容词、副词,副词常置于它们之前(enough除外)。

  例句: the mechanisms at work are manifest in the tendency for such physical activity to utilize the potentially harmful constituents of the stress response. (XX年第14题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中不定式to utilize the potentially harmful constituents of the stress response作状语表示目的。

  译文: 在此起作用的机制显然有此倾向,即这种身体活动会利用应激反应中的潜在有害因素。

  例句: the newly built science building seems substantial enough to last a hundred.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中副词enough作定语修饰形容词substantial。

  译文: 新建的科学大楼看上去很坚固,一百年也坏不了。

  2.修饰实义动词时,副词常置于该动词后或该动词宾语后面。

  例句: the solution works only for couples who are self employed, don?t have small children and get along well enough to spend most of their time together. (1999年第8题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为the solution works only for couples, 而who are self employed,...是修饰couples的定语从句。

  译文: 这一解决办法只适用于那些自谋职业、没有小孩子而且大部分时间待在一起和睦相处的夫妻。

  3.频率副词和否定副词一般取中间位置,置于实义动词之前、系动词be或第一个助动词之后。

  例句: as for the influence of computerization, nowhere have we seen the results more clearly than in the us, which really have surprised us all.

  分析: 该句是复合句,which really have surprised us all是一个非限制性定语从句修饰the results,主句中nowhere置于句首引起倒装。

  译文: 就计算机化的影响而言,其结果在美国比在其他任何地方都明显,这真使我们惊奇不已。

  例句: naturally he will try to borrow money at a low rate of interest, but loans of this kind are not frequently obtainable. (选自XX年cloze test)

  分析: 该句是一个由but连接的并列句。

  译文: 他自然会努力去获取低息贷款,但这种贷款并不是经常能贷到的。

  4.有些副词修饰整个句子,常置于句前,并用逗号与句子的其他成分隔开。

  例句: traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person. (XX年第46题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,句子的主干部分是legal learning has been viewed as...rather than...。

  译文: 长久以来,法律知识在这类学校里一直被视为律师们所专有的,而不是一个受教育者的知识素养的必要组成部分。

  例句: instead, the new habits we deliberately press into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是the new habits create parallel pathways。we deliberately press into ourselves是省略了关系代词的定语从句,修饰主语the new habits。短语press into的意思是“逼迫,挤入”。另一定语从句that can bypass those old roads修饰主句的宾语parallel pathways,that作从句的主语。

  译文: 相反,我们有意培养的新习惯会形成平行的路径以避开那些原有习惯的轨道。

  5.几个副词连在一起,顺序一般为方式副词+地点副词+时间副词(或把时间副词置于句首)。

  例句: jane lived isolatedly方式in the town地点for ten years.时间

  6.疑问副词常置于句首。

  例句: why do so many americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,what引导的宾语从句作distrust的宾语。

  译文: 为什么那么多的美国人不相信自己在报刊上看到的东西呢?

  三、副词的特殊情况

  1. 英语中有些副词有两种形式: 一种与形容词形式相同,一种形式是以ly结尾,但其意义和用法有所不同,如:

  clean完全地 cleanly干净地

  close接近地 closely紧密地(表抽象概念)

  free免费地,随意地 freely率直地

  hard努力 hardly几乎不

  high高 highly高度地,非常

  late迟,晚 lately近来

  pretty相当,颇 prettily漂亮地

  fair公平 fairly公正地;相当

  most最,颇 mostly主要地,多半地

  just刚才,正好 justly公正地

  direct直接地 directly直接地,坦率,马上

  例句: since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中that is dangerous,boring,burdensome,or just plain nasty是定语从句,修饰work。

  译文: 自从人类具有了独创性以来,人们发明了越来越精巧的工具来应付那些危险、枯燥、繁重或者仅仅是令人讨厌的工作。

  例句: the american dream is most plausible during the periods of productivity and wealth generated by american capitalism. (1999年第25题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,generated by american capitalism为过去分词作后置定语,修饰the periods。

  译文: 在美国的资本主义带来生产率的提高与财富增加的那段时期,美国梦是最有可能实现的。

  例句: “in the general population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we?ve pretty much gone as far as we can go, ”says anthropologist william cameron chumlea of wright state university. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 引号内的句子是简单句,主句部分是we?ve pretty much gone as far as we can go,介词短语in the general population today和at this genetic...在句中作状语。

  译文: 怀特州立大学的人类学家威廉·卡梅隆·查姆利指出: “在今天的一般人群中,在这种基因和环境水平上,我们已经达到了我们所能达到的高度。”

  2.以ly结尾的词大部分是副词,但以下由名词+ly构成的词却是形容词,如:

  brotherly scholarly(学者风度的) heavenly(天堂的)

  homely friendly masterly(高明的)

  likely lovelycostly

  childly quarterly(按季度的)manly

  leisurely(从容不迫的,悠闲的)

  例句: replies show that compared with other americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods, have maids, own mercedeses, and trade stocks, and they?re less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a community. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析:该句是复合句,其中分词短语compared with other americans作状语表示比较,谓语动词show后有由and连接的两个并列宾语从句。

  译文:结果表明,与其他美国人相比,记者更有可能居住在质优价高的地段,有仆人、奔驰车及股票。他们不大可能去做礼拜、当志愿者或在普通社区居住。

  四、副词的比较级与最高级

  副词的比较级与最高级的变化规则和用法与形容词的变化相同,但在副词的最高级前可省掉定冠词the。

  例句: those forced to exercise their smiling muscles reacted more enthusiastically to funny cartoons than did those whose mouths were contracted in a frown, suggesting that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around.(选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是those...reacted more enthusiastically to funny cartoons than did those...,其中did代替了与主句相同的谓语部分reacted enthusiastically to funny cartoons,正常语序为...than those...did。另外,分词短语forced to exercise their smiling muscles作后置定语,修饰主语those;whose mouths were contracted in a frown是一个定语从句,修饰句中的第二个those;suggesting that...是分词短语作状语,表示结果,相当于which引导的一个非限制性定语从句。

  译文:那些被迫锻炼笑肌的人比那些嘴形收缩得犹如紧皱的眉毛般的人对滑稽的卡通动画的反应更为强烈,这表明表情也可以影响情绪而非只能是情绪影响表情。

  例句:the people who?ve been hurt the worst are those who?ve stayed too long. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析:该句是复合句,主句的主干部分是the people are those,两个定语从句who?ve been hurt the worst 和who?ve stayed too long分别修饰先行词the people和those。

  译文:受伤害最深的就是那些待得太久的人。

  例句:among other students in his class, he studies (the) hardest.

  译文:他在班上学习最刻苦。

  五、易混淆的副词和形容词

  (一)such,so

  such是形容词,如such+a(an)+单数可数名词,或such+不可数名词或可数名词的复数;so是副词,如so+形容词+a(an)+单数名词。

  注意:在so+形容词+a(an)+单数名词这一结构中名词不可改为复数形式。

  如so beautiful girls就是错误形式,应改为: such beautiful girls。

  另外such,so都可接that从句,形式为such...that/so...that,称之为结果状语从句。

  例句:only a decade earlier, such an act would have required legislative approval in virginia. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析:该句是简单句,主干部分是such an act would have required legislative approval in virginia, would have required表示与过去事实相反的推测,only a decade earlier在句中作状语,表示时间。

  译文:要是再早上XX年,这种举动必须获得弗吉尼亚州立法委的批准。

  例句:the newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of europe and southeast asia that some scholars even accused boas and sapair of fabricating their data. (XX年第43题)

  分析:该句是复合句,that引导一结果状语从句,短语accuse sb. of sth.意为“指责、指控某人某事”。

  译文:这些新近被描述的语言与已经被充分研究的欧洲和东南亚地区的语言往往差别显着,以至于有些学者甚至指责boas和sapair编造了材料。

  例句:such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in life. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析:该句是简单句,其中形容词短语necessary to succeed in school and in life作定语修饰elements。

  译文:这些标准化测试并不能测出在学校和生活中取得成功所必需的重要因素。

  例句:the discussion was so prolonged and exhausting that at intervals the speakers stopped for refreshments. (1996年第26题)

  分析:该句是复合句。

  译文:讨论是那样的冗长而乏味,以至于发言的人不时地停下来喝点饮料。

  (二)very,much

  very修饰形容词原级和副词;much(或very much)修饰动词、形容词或副词的比较级和最高级。

  例句:ted had told me that he always escaped being fined as he had got a very fast sport car.

  分析:该句是复合句,其中being fined是动名词一般式的被动式,在句中作谓语动词escape的宾语。

  译文:泰德告诉我,因为他有一辆速度很快的赛车,所以总是能逃脱罚款。

  例句:mercury?s velocity is so much greater than the earth?s that it completes more than four revolutions around the sun in the time it takes the earth to complete one. (1996年第20题)

  分析:该句是复合句,so...that是一个表结果的句子结构,time后是一个省略了关系词which(或that)的定语从句。

  译文:水星的周转速度要比地球快得多,以至于在地球绕太阳转一圈的时间内,水星能绕太阳转四圈多。

  (三)too much,much too(far too)

  too much+不可数名词; much too/far too+形容词或副词原级。

  例句:the reason, in fact, may be just the opposite: there is too much damn happiness in the world today. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析:冒号后内容是对其前内容的进一步解释。

  译文:事实上,真正的原因可能恰恰相反。今天的世界有太多太多的快乐了。

  例句:i don?t like eating chocolate. the taste is much too sweet.

  译文:我不喜欢吃巧克力,味道太甜了。

  (四)also, too, either

  also, too用于肯定句,also多用于正式场合,too多为习惯用法,而either用于否定句。

  例句:i support your decision, but i should also make it clear that i am not going to be bound to it.

  分析:该句是由but引导的并列句,其中短语be bound to sth.意为“必定,作保证”。

  译文:我支持你的决定,但也应该说清楚,我并不打算非得按照你的决定做。

  例句:careless use of words prevents a meeting of the minds of the speaker and the listener, too.

  分析:该句是简单句。

  译文:用词粗心大意往往也会阻碍说话人和听话人的思想交流。

  例句:mary is not a christian;john is not a christian, either.

  译文:玛丽不是基督徒,约翰也不是。

  例句:but the 47 year old manicurist isn?t cutting, filing or polishing as many nails as she?d like to, either. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析:该句是复合句,其中在not...as...as结构中,第一个as是副词修饰many,而第二个as是连词引导状语从句,表方式。

  译文:但对这位47岁的美甲师来说,现在到她这儿来修剪、锉磨或上油的人却不如她希望的那么多。

  形容词

  一、作定语的形容词

  1. 绝大部分形容词既可作定语又可作表语,但少数形容词只能作定语,放在名词前,常见的有: daily,weekly,monthly,former,latter,woolen,wooden;也有少数形容词只能作表语,置于be后,这些表语形容词一般以字母a开头。

  如:

  afraid alive alone alike ashamed

  awake aware asleep afire

  例句: this alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of 80 european television networks, no less than 50 took a loss in 1989. (XX年第48题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,含有多个从句,a fact underlined by statistics that后接一定语从句,show后又接一宾语从句,其中no less than可译为“不少于,至少”;take a loss 译为“亏本,赔本”。

  译文: 仅这一点就足以证明,要在电视行业里生存下来并非易事,统计数字尤其说明了这一事实: 在欧洲国家的80个电视网络中,多达一半的公司在1989年亏损。

  2. 作定语的形容词一般用作前置修饰语,但在下列情况中,形容词作后置定语。

  (1)名词词组的中心词为some,any,no等构成的合成词。

  例句: i?d say whenever you are going after something belonging to you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal. (1997年第21题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,从句who is depriving you of the right to have it作anyone的定语, whenever you are going after something belonging to you作say的宾语从句中的状语。

  译文: 我想说无论什么时候当你追求某种属于你的东西时,任何想剥夺你拥有它的权利的人都是在犯罪。

  (2)带有不定式、介词短语等的形容词短语。

  例句: any student careful enough to take the exam is sure to succeed in the end.

  分析: 该句是简单句,careful enough to take the exam 作定语修饰student。

  译文: 参加考试的任何一位学生只要足够细心最终就一定会取得成功。

  (3)某些形容词作后置定语。

  present,available,involved,concerned,martial(军事的),general,proper等作后置定语,如:

  the member present (出席的成员)

  court martial (军事法庭)

  secretary general (秘书长)

  例句: i was unaware of the critical points involved, so my choice was quite arbitrary. (1998年第37题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 我没有意识到问题的关键所在,因此我的抉择十分武断。

  例句: there were many people present and he appeared only for a few seconds,so i only caught a glimpse of him. (1998年第22题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 来的人很多,而他只到场一会儿,所以我只见了他一眼。

  3. 表度量的形容词。

  例句: there is a heavily polluted river 100 meters long in front of our small playground.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 我们小操场前有一条长100米被严重污染的河。

  4. 形容词并列用作定语时的位置。

  限定词→数量(序数前、基数后)→形状→大小、长短、高低等度量→新旧→颜色→国籍→ 材料

  例句: i have never seen these beautiful round multi colored chinese cloisonne(景泰蓝)vases in my first three years in china.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 在中国的最初三年中,我从来没有见过这些颜色各异的圆形中式景泰蓝花瓶。

  二、主客观意义易混淆的形容词

  主观意义,如:

  contemptuous (表示轻蔑的)

  desirous (渴望的)

  envious (羡慕别人的)

  expressive (表情丰富的)

  forgetful (健忘的)

  imaginative (富于想象的)

  perceptive (感觉敏锐的)

  persuasive (能说服的,有说服力的)

  respectful (表示尊敬的)

  tolerant (容忍的,容许的) 客观意义,如:

  contemptible (轻视的,卑劣的)

  desirable (值得要的,想要的)

  enviable (令人羡慕的)

  expressible (可表达出来的)

  forgettable (可忘记的)

  imaginable (可想象出来的)

  perceptible (可感觉的)

  persuasible (可说服的,听话的)

  respectable (可敬的)

  tolerable (可容忍的)

  例句: the authors are witheringly contemptuous of the bogus equation of tidiness and morality, for example, in corporate “clean desk” policies.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 作者毫不留情地批评了将整洁与道德相等同的做法,例如,公司内“清洁办公桌”的政策。

  例句: we should be alert to the possibility that individuals, organizations or governments tend to pied a worthy goal in excuse of their contemptible means and selfish interests.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that individuals,organizations or governments tend to...作possibility的同位语。

  译文: 我们应当警惕这种可能性: 个人、组织或政府以高尚的目标作为他们采取卑鄙手段 和获取私利的借口。

  三、the+形容词(分词形容词)

  the+形容词(分词形容词)表示一类人或一类事物,后接谓语动词复数。

  如:

  the poor (穷人)

  the blind (盲人)

  the deaf (聋子)

  the few/the many (少数人/多数人)

  the dying (奄奄一息的人)

  the killed (死了的人)

  the oppressed (被压迫的人们)

  the aged,the weak,the sick and the disabled (老弱病残)

  the living (活着的人)

  例句: the old are cared well in a home for the poor and aged.

  译文: 老人在养老院里得到了很好的照料。

  例句: the poor are very happy, but the rich are sad.

  译文: 穷人很快乐,富人却不快乐。

  少数词接单数动词,如: the departed/the deceased (死者), the beautiful (美好的事物), the unexpected (意外情况)。

  例句: the deceased has been sent to the funeral parlor.

  译文: 死者已经被送往殡仪馆。

  四、复合形容词

  有些形容词由两部分或更多部分组成,称为复合形容词,如:

  three year old child (三岁的孩子)

  six storied building (六层的楼房)

  one eyed donkey (一只眼的驴)

  其他如: prep. /adj. /n. /adv.+p.p.(分词)

  off putting (令人讨厌的)

  nit picking (找茬的,吹毛求疵的)

  free living (生活无拘束的)

  hard wearing (耐穿的)

  star crossed (命运不佳的,倒霉的)

  tender hearted (心肠软的,慈善的)

  well intentioned (善意的,好心的)

  例句: people who live in small towns often seem more friendly than those living in densely populated areas. (1999年第27题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中those living...相当于those who live in...。

  译文: 住在小镇上的人似乎往往比住在人口稠密地区的人更为友好。

  例句: in this way these insects show an efficient use of their sound producing ability, organizing two sounds delivered at a high rate as one call. (1997年第16题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,organizing two sounds delivered...作伴随状语。

  译文: 通过这种方式这些昆虫能展示它们高超的发音功能,在很高的频率下发出两种声波作为一次鸣叫。

  五、一些本身有比较意义的形容词

  英语中绝大多数形容词都可以用来表示比较意义,但有一部分形容词本身已经带有比较的含义, 因此这些词没有比较级和最高级形式,如:

  only, mere, sole, extreme, supreme, perfect, single, real, utmost, eternal, principal, chief, main, empty, matchless, unique, wonderful, square等。

  例句: my favorite radio song is the one i first heard on a thick 1923 edison disc i stumbled upon at a garage sale. (XX年第22题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,i first heard on a thick 1923 edison disc与i stumbled upon at a garage sale是两个定语从句,分别修饰the one和edison disc。

  译文: 在一次现场旧货出售中我偶然碰到一张1923年的爱迪生唱片,从那张唱片上我第一次听到了我最喜欢的广播歌曲。

  六、比较结构

  (一)同级比较

  形式为:...as+(形容词或副词)原级+(名词)+as...

  例句: critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that commercial genetic testing...作argue的宾语,to which a sample is compared是一个修饰the reference collections的定语从句。

  译文: 批评家们还指出,商业基因检测的好坏取决于用于样本对比的参考样本的好坏。

  例句: scientists generally agree that the earth?s climate will warm up over the next 50 to 100 years as much as it has warmed in the 2,000 years since the ice age.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the earth?s...ice age 作 agree的宾语从句。

  译文: 科学家们普遍认为,地球气候未来50年到1XX年的时间里会变暖,变暖的程度与自冰河世纪以来的2 0XX年的时间里变暖的程度一样。

  (二)优劣比较

  1.优等比较。

  形式为:...比较级+than...

  例句: it?s a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette, yet, somehow, a breath of fresh air. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句,even more bitter than...修饰a message。

  译文: 读这一消息的滋味甚至比抽丁香烟还要苦,但却不知怎么地带来了一股清新的气息。

  例句: these recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today?s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener?s choosing. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析:该句是由分号连接的并列句。前一个分句中含有形容词的比较级;后一个分句中副词moreover表示递进关系。

  译文:这些录制音乐价格低廉,到处可以买到,而且其艺术品质往往比当今的现场演奏要高出许多。它们可以在听众所选择的任何时间和地点被“享用”。

  2.劣等比较。

  形式为:...not so (as)+原级+as...=less+原级+ than

  例句: according to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中,分词短语concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples作后置定语,修饰studies,从句that parents are less happy than childless couples又充当concluding的宾语。

  译文: 结论为 “为人父母者不如无子女者幸福”的多项研究表明,单亲父母最不幸福。

  例句: their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中those代表lives。

  译文: 他们的生活同其下属一样空虚。

  (三)最高级表示

  1. 优等比较。

  形式为: the+最高级+单数名词或one +of (in短语)/that从句(仅限于形容词)。

  例句: it soon becomes clear that the interior designer?s most important basic concern is the function of the particular space.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中it为形式主语,真正的主语为that the interior designer?s most important...。

  译文: 室内设计者最基本的关注点就是某一特定空间的功能,这一点很快就清楚了。

  例句: i believe that the most important forces behind the massive m&a wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers? demands. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分为i believe that..., that require enlarged...demands是修饰falling transportation...and enlarged markets的定语从句,形容词短语capable of meeting customers? demands修饰operations,其中be the same that...意为“……与……是相同的”。

  译文: 我认为引起这场大规模合并浪潮的最重要的力量与导致全球化的力量是相同的: 运输与通信费用下降,贸易与投资障碍减少,市场扩大。这一切都需要扩大业务往来以满足消费者的需求。

  2. 劣等比较。

  形式为: the+least+原级+(单数名词或one)+of(in短语)/that从句(仅限于形容词)。

  例句: in class, she is the least talented girl in mastering foreign language that i have ever taught.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that i have ever taught是修饰girl的定语从句。

  译文: 她是我在班里教过的在外语学习方面最缺乏天分的女孩。

  3. 比较级表示最高级含义。

  形式为: 比较级+ than any other+单数名词。

  例句: the campus of this university is much more beautiful than any other campus.

  译文: 这所大学的校园是最漂亮的。

  4. 最高级形容词前加定冠词the,但作表语不和他人或物作比较时,可省去the。

  例句: i have been busiest these days for writing papers.

  译文: 写论文的这些天是我最忙的时间。

  (四)同类比较

  同类事物才能放在一起作比较,不同类的不能放在一起进行比较,例如:

  are your jobs more important than jack?

  (说法错误。你的工作不能和jack比较;应该是和jack的工作相比较,因此该句正确的说法为: are your jobs more important than jack?s?)

  the climate of shanxi province is much better than henan province.

  (说法错误。山西的气候不能和河南省比较;应该是和河南省的气候相比较,因此该句正确的说法为: the climate of shanxi province is much better than that of henan province. )

  例句: meanwhile, many settlers had slighter religious commitments than dane?s, as one clergyman learned in confronting folk along the coast who mocked that they had not come to the new world for religion. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干是many settlers had slighter religious commitments than dane?s。 dane?s 后省略了religious commitment,as one clergyman learned...是一个方式状语从句, who mocked...是一个修饰folk的定语从句,they had not come to the new world for religion是that引导的宾语从句,作mock的宾语。

  译文: 同时,许多移居者对宗教的虔诚不如丹的表现,正如一位神职人员从在海边遇到的一些人那里听到的一样,那些人嘲弄地说道他们来新大陆并不是为了宗教。

  (五)排除本身的比较级要借助other或else

  she is taller than any girls in class.

  (本句表达错误,本句中应该在girl前加other,这就排除了和她本身的比较,另外girl不能用复数,因为she只能比其他某个女孩高,不可能比所有女孩加起来还高,应改为: she is taller than any other girl in class.)

  (六)比较级前可用副词或短语来修饰表示程度

  在同级比较as...as结构前可用almost,nearly,just (about),quite等修饰词。

  在优等比较,即“比较级+ than”结构前可用(so) very much,(quite)a lot,a great deal,a bit,somewhat,still,far,by far等修饰词。

  例句: often they chose—and still are choosing—somewhat colder climate such as oregon, idaho, and alaska in order to escape smog, crime and other plagues of urbanization in the golden stars. (选自1998年text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句,in order to escape...作状语表示目的,of urbanization修饰plagues。

  译文: 他们常常选择——现在依然这么选择——居住在那些气候较冷的地区,如俄勒冈州、爱达荷州和阿拉斯加州,为的是逃避这个“黄金州”(加利福尼亚州)的烟雾、犯罪以及都市化带来的其他问题。

  例句: i also know that people in japan and sweden, countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer, healthier lives than we have. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中定语从句that spend far less on medical care修饰countries,than we have是比较状语从句。

  译文: 我也深知在日本和瑞典这样医疗开销很少的国家,人们获得了比我们更长的寿命和更健康的生活。

  (七) more than和more...than

  1. more than= over,表示“超过,何止, 极其”,可以修饰名词、形容词、副词、动词或从句,放在动词前常译为“不仅仅,远,大”。

  例句: more than two hundred years ago the united states broke away from the british empire and became an independent country.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 200多年前,美国摆脱了大英帝国,成为一个独立的国家。

  例句: the more than 50, 000 nuclear weapons in the hands of various nations today are more than ample for destroying every city in the world several times over. (1998年第18题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,短语be ample for sth. /doing sth.意为“足以……”,介词短语in the hands of various nations today作定语修饰weapons。

  译文: 今天,各国手中掌握的5万多件核武器足以将世界上的每一座城市毁灭数次。

  2. more...than可译为“与其说……不如说……”,即more a than b,译为“与其说是b不如说是a”,强调“more”后的a,反义表达是less a than b,译为“与其说a不如说b”,强调“than”后的b。

  例句: what he said is more a story than a joke made for fun.

  分析: 该句是复合句,主语是what引导的主语从句,is是谓语,made for fun作后置定语修饰joke。

  译文: 与其说他讲述了一个逗人开心的笑话还不如说那是一个相当离谱的故事。

  (八) no more than 与 no more...than

  1. no more than= nothing more than= only表示“仅仅,只不过”之意。

  例句: the individual tv viewer invariably senses that he or she is no more than an anonymous, statistically insignificant part of a huge and diverse audience. (XX年第7题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that he or she is no more than...在句中作sense的宾语。

  译文: 电视观众作为个体来说总是觉得,他/她只是众多不同观众中无名无姓的、不值一提的一分子罢了。

  2. no more...than...表示“不是……也不是……”或“与……同样不”之意。

  (l)no more+名词+than+名词。

  例句: i?m afraid you?ve got the wrong person. i am no more a scientist than a mathematician.

  译文: 我想恐怕你们搞错了,我既不是什么科学家,也不是什么数学家。

  试比较: she is not more a doctor than a technician. (less a doctor than a technician)

  译文: 与其说她是医生,还不如说她是技师。

  (2)no+形容词或副词比较级+than。

  例句: the heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain. (1994年第4题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,由主句和for引导的原因状语从句组成。

  译文: 心脏和胃一样都无智力可言,因为它们都受大脑的控制。

  例句: mr.mcwhorter?s academic specialty is language history and change, and he sees the gradual disappearance of“whom”, for example, to be natural and no more regrettable than the loss of the case endings of old english. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是并列句,to be natural和no more regrettable than the loss of...是see的宾语补足语。

  译文: 麦荷特先生研究的学术领域是语言的历史和演化,他将诸如whom这类词汇的逐步消失看做是正常的,认为它们与古英语尾格消失一样不值得惋惜。

  (九)not so...as 和 not so much...as

  1. not so...as是一般比较级结构,表示劣等比较。

  例句: while it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. (XX年第48题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是it is not so easy as in dealing with adults。该从句中的it是形式主语,真正的主语是不定式结构to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition,介词短语in our contact with them在句中作状语。

  译文: 在和他们的交往中,我们很容易忽视自己的行为对他们的性格产生的影响,但在与成年人的交往过程中,这种情况就不那么容易发生。

  2. not so much...as表示“与其说是……不如说是……”之意。

  例句: the chief reason for the population growth isn?t so much a rise in birth rates as a fall in death rates as a result of improvement in medical care.(1997年第6题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,介词短语as a result of improvement in medical care作状语表示原因。

  译文: 人口增长的主要原因与其说是出生率的上升,还不如说是由于医疗保健的改善而引起的死亡率的下降。

  例句: it wasn?t so much that i disliked her as that i just wasn?t interested in the whole business. (XX年第9题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,包含由not so much that...as that...引导的让步状语从句,that i disliked her与that i just wasn?t interested in...为并列结构。

  译文: 与其说我不喜欢她,不如说我只是对整个事件不感兴趣。

  (十)不用than的比较级

  1. the+比较级...,the+比较级...,表示“越……,越……”之意。

  例句: the better informed they are about the way the state works, the better their reporting will be. (选自XX年part c)

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 他们越是了解国家的运行方式,就越能作出好的报道。

  例句: in fact, the more new things we try—the more we step outside our comfort zone—the more inherently creative we become, both in the workplace and in our personal lives. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 句中第一个破折号对前面内容作进一步解释,而第二个破折号后的内容表示前面那样实践的结果。

  译文: 事实上,我们尝试的新事物越多就越能走出自己的舒适区,从而无论在职场上还是在个人生活中都具有更大的内在创造力。

  2.(ever)+比较级+and+比较级,表示“日益”之意。

  例句: the weather is turning ever colder and colder, and people have to make a fire in their homes in advance.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 天气变得越来越冷,人们纷纷提前在家里生起了火。

  3.prefer+动名词+to+动名词=prefer to+动词原形+rather than+动词原形。

  例句: the old man himself prefers to write the letter rather than dictate others.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 老人宁愿自己亲自写信也不愿口授他人。

  4.以 ior结尾的形容词接to构成比较级,而不接than,但有些词可以用接than的比较级来替代,如: junior to(=younger than),senior to(=older than),inferior to(=worse than), superior to(=better than),prior(=before)以及preferable(比……更可取的)。

  例句: beethoven is my favorite musician and i consider him as superior to other musicians in the world.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 贝多芬是我最喜欢的音乐家,我认为他比世界上其他音乐家都要优秀。

  七、倍数表示法

  (一)表倍数的词+as+形容词/副词原级+as...

  例句: the oxygen atom is nearly 16 times as heavy as the hydrogen.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 氧原子的重量几乎是氢原子的16倍。

  例句: engaged in the part time job, he earned three times as much as his roommate.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中分词engaged in...在句中作状语表示原因。

  译文: 由于从事了兼职工作,他所挣得的是他舍友所挣得的三倍。

  (二)表倍数的词+ that/(the+名词)+of...

  例句: the cotton output in hami area is 3 times that of the grape.

  译文: 哈密地区的棉花产量是葡萄产量的三倍。

  (三)表倍数的词+比较级+than

  例句: smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills seven times more people each year than automobile accidents. (1999年第2题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that it kills...是一个结果状语从句。

  译文: 吸烟对个人健康危害严重,每年吸烟造成的死亡人数比机动车事故的死亡人数多七倍。

  例句: when the united states entered just such a glowing period after the end of the second world war, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,after the end of the second world war在句中作状语,形容词短语eight times larger than any competitor修饰market,分词giving its industries...在句中作结果状语说明it had a market...any competitor的结果。

  译文: 第二次世界大战结束后,美国恰好进入这样一段辉煌时期,当时,它拥有的市场是任何竞争对手的八倍,这使美国工业达到了一个无与伦比的经济规模。

  (四)用倍数动词double,triple, quadruple分别表示增加了一、二、三倍

  例句: the handling capacity of the qingdao harbor has tripled in two years.

  译文: 青岛港的吞吐量两年间翻了两番。

  (五)表示增减意义的动词

  1. 用表示增减意义的动词(如increase,rise,grow,go up,decrease,fall,drop,lower, reduce)+to+...times表示“增加到……倍或减少到……倍”。

  例句: as a result, california?s growth rate dropped during the 1970s, to 18.5 percent—little more than two thirds the 1960s growth figure and considerably below that of other western states. (选自1998年text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句,破折号后的内容,即形容词短语little more than two thirds...and...对前面内容作进一步补充说明。

  译文: 结果,20世纪70年代加利福尼亚州的人口增长率降到了18.5。这个数字比60年代增长率的2/3略高,但明显低于西部其他各州。

  2. 用表示增加或减少的动词+by+...times表示“增加了或减少了……倍”。

  例句: and since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2 a year, which is more than twice the 1978—1987 average. (选自1998年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句which is more than twice...修饰about 2 a year。

  译文: 1991年以来,生产率每年大约增长2,这一比率是1978年到1987年平均增长指数的两倍。

  3. 表增减意义的动词+数字或表增减意义的动词+by a factor of+数字(增加时,译作“增加了n-1倍”,减少时译作“减少了(n-1)n倍”)。

  例句: the grain output in our country has increased four times.

  译文: 我国粮食产量增加了3倍。

  例句: the coal output has been lowered by a factor of 5.

  译文: 煤的产量减少了4/5。

  (六)表示增加意义的形容词/副词

  1. again +as+形容词/副词原级+as表示“是/为……的两倍”之意。

  例句: the car factory is again as large as the electronic infrastructure factory.

  译文: 汽车厂是电子基础设施厂的两倍大。

  2.half again+as+形容词/副词原级+as表示“增加了一半”之意。

  例句: this liberation bridge is half again as long as the victoria.

  译文: 解放大桥是维多利亚大桥的1.5倍。

  代词

  一、人称代词

  (一)人称代词的主格、宾格

  人称代词的主格在句中作主语、表语,宾格作及物动词或介词的宾语,主格和宾格不可混用。

  例句: when school was over, jack and me went home together.

  分析: me应改为i,因为它处在主语的位置上。

  例句: each cigarette which a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect. (1996年第14题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中which a person smokes是修饰each cigarette的定语从句,he指代前面的a person。

  译文: 一个人吸的每一支烟都对他的身体有害,最终他将因吸烟患上一种严重的疾病。

  (二)it的用法

  1. 代替除人以外的一切生物或事物(可代替单个词、词组或句子)。

  例句: the ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes. (XX年第19题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中he composes是省略了关系代词which/that的定语从句,修饰the moment, 而almost as much as the composer作状语修饰enjoys。

  译文: 理想的听众是当音乐奏响时既能置身其中又可超然其外的人,并且几乎可以像作曲家在创作音乐时那样享受音乐。

  例句: you have saved my life and i will never forget it.

  分析: it指you have saved my life。

  译文: 你曾经挽救过我的生命,我决不会忘记这件事。

  2. 表示时间、距离、天气等自然现象。

  例句: it is time now to tell the americans they are on the wrong track.

  译文: 现在是时候告诉美国人他们走错路了。

  例句: she didn?t come back until it was 12:00.

  译文: 直到12点她才回来。

  例句: it is about 50 miles to school.

  译文: 到学校大概50英里。

  3. 作形式主语(真正的主语为动名词、不定式或主语从句)

  例句: but it?s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress free, happiness enhancing parenthood aren?t in some small,subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句。其中it是形式主语,真正的主语是to wonder if the images aren?t contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience;we see every week of stress free, happiness enhancing parenthood是一个定语从句,修饰the images;介词短语in some small,subconscious way作状语,表示方式。

  译文: 我们想知道每周看到的“毫无压力、提升幸福感”的为人父母形象是否在以某种细微的、潜意识的方式加剧我们对现行生活体验的不满呢?这很有意思。

  例句: in fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the canadian constitution can do a competent job on political stories.

  (XX年第49题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。it是形式主语,定语从句who do not have a clear grasp...constitution修饰journalists,can do是宾语从句how...的谓语部分。

  译文: 事实上,很难想象那些对加拿大宪法的基本要点缺乏清晰了解的新闻记者能胜任政治新闻的报道工作。

  4. 作形式宾语

  例句: the financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是简单句。其中it作形式宾语,真正的宾语是to be between jobs or to leave a bad one,more acceptable作宾语补足语。

  译文: 金融危机已经使得等待工作机会或者辞去糟糕的工作这种行为更容易被人接受了。

  例句: there are over 100 night schools in the city, making it possible for a professional to be reeducated no matter what he does. (1998年第7题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。no matter what he does在句中作状语,表示让步,分词短语making...作over 100 night schools的补足语。

  译文: 这个城市有100多所夜校,这使得专业人员无论从事什么工作都有可能接受再教育。

  5. 引出强调句(强调谓语以外的其他成分)

  用强调句型: it is/was+被强调部分+that(who/whom/which)+其他部分,被强调部分常为主语(从句)、宾语(从句)、状语(从句),强调状语时不能用when或where,要用that,翻译成汉语时被强调部分常用“是”、“正是”等来表示强调含义。判断是不是强调句的标准是去掉“it is/was”和“that(who/whom/which)”,如果余下部分是一个完整的句子,说明原句是一个强调句,否则就是一个由it作形式主语的句子。

  例句: it was during the same time that the communications revolution speeded up, beginning with transport, the railway, and leading on through the telegraph, the telephone, radio, and motion pictures into the 20th century world of the motor car and the airplane. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是复合句。分词短语beginning with...作主语the communications revolution的补足语,该强调句强调状语during the same time。

  译文: 与此同时,通讯革命也在加速发展,从交通运输、铁路开始,发展到电报、电话、无线电和电影再到20世纪的汽车和飞机。

  例句: perhaps it is humankind?s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating. (选自1998年text 1)

  分析: 该句是简单句。句子主干为humankind?s long suffering...makes...so fascinating。其中短语at the mercy of...意为“听凭……摆布,完全受……支配”。

  译文: 也许正是由于人类长期听任旱涝之灾的摆布,才使得让洪水听从人类的调遣这种理想令人如此痴迷。

  二、物主代词

  (一)物主代词包括形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词

  形容词性物主代词只能修饰名词而不能代替名词,而名词性物主代词可以代替名词词组,即“形容词性物主代词+前面所提到的名词”。

  例句: all the off shore oil explorers were in high spirits as they read affectionate letters from their families. (1998年第35题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。出现了as引导的时间状语从句。

  译文: 海洋石油勘探队员们读情深意浓的家书时个个情绪高涨。

  例句: he does not qualify as a teacher of english as his pronunciation is terrible, but hers is quite good.

  分析: 该句是并列句。第一部分是个复合句,出现了as引导的原因状语从句。

  译文: 他因为糟糕的发音而不够资格当英文老师,但她的发音却非常好。

  (二)不同性别的形容词性物主代词修饰名词。

  如:不同性别的形容词性物主代词同时修饰一个名词时,男性物主代词置于女性物主代词前。

  例句: who do you like best, his or her friends?

  译文: 你最喜欢他的还是她的朋友?

  (三)名词性物主代词(除its外)可与介词of搭配,构成双重所有格

  a/an/some/any/no/another/each/such/several/which/this/that/these/those+名词+of+名词性物主代词。

  如:

  a book of mine

  no fault of hers

  that pen of his

  例句: in march 1998, a friend of williams?s got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for additions, and wrote to inform the casino of williams?s gambling problems. (选自XX年part b)

  分析: 该句是简单句。got和wrote是两个并列的谓语动词。

  译文: 1998年3月,威廉姆斯的一个朋友把他强行送入一家戒赌治疗中心,并写信通知赌场有关威廉姆斯的赌博问题。

  三、反身代词

  反身代词在句中作宾语、表语和同位语,使用时注意反身代词与其指代对象在人称、数和性上保持一致。

  例句: according to one belief, if truth is to be known, it will make itself apparent, so one had better wait instead of searching for it. (XX年第3题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中had better+ do意为“最好做某事”。

  译文: 按照一种观点,真理若想众人皆知,真理就应该显而易见,所以人们最好是等待而不是去探寻它。

  例句: prof. white, my respected tutor, frequently reminds me to avail myself of every chance to improve my english. (1999年第35题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。avail oneself of...意为“利用(机会等)”。

  译文: 我敬爱的导师怀特教授经常提醒我抓住每个机会提高英语水平。

  例句: the house belongs to myself.(作介词宾语)

  you yourself did wrong to him.(作同位语)

  四、相互代词

  相互代词只有each other和one another两种,通常前者表示两者之间的相互关系,后者表示两者以上的人或事物之间的相互关系。

  例句: language, culture, and personality may be considered independently of each other in thought,but they are inseparable in fact. (1996年第31题)

  分析: 该句是由but引导的并列句。

  译文: 在意识形态中,语言、文化和个性可能被认为是相互独立的,但事实上它们是不可分割的。

  例句: in europe, as elsewhere, multi media groups have been increasingly successful groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. (XX年第47题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。句子主干为multi media groups have been increasingly successful groups。定语从句which bring together...修饰groups,其中television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses作bring的宾语,即bring...together, 另一个定语从句that work in relation to one another修饰其前面的几个名词。

  译文: 在欧洲,像在其他地方一样,传媒集团扩张越来越成功,这些集团将相关的电视、 广播、报纸、杂志和出版社组合在一起。

  注意: 相互代词的所有格形式为each other?s,one another?s,其后接不可数名词或可数名词的复数形式,不能接单数可数名词。

  五、指示代词

  (一)this,that和these,those

  指示代词this和that的复数形式分别为these和those,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语和定语,this和these表示较近的空间或时间,that和those表示较远的空间和时间。

  例句: in the past, most foresters have been men, but today, the number of women pursuing this field is climbing.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 过去林业工人多半是男人,可如今从事这一行业的妇女人数在增加。

  例句: we are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. (XX年第62题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为we are obliged to them。because引导一个状语从句,定语从句who spoke them修饰the peoples,as引导的句子可以看做插入语,补充说明 some of these languages have since vanished的原因。

  译文: 我们之所以感激他们(两位先驱),是因为在此以后,这些语言中有一些已经不复存在了,这是由于使用这些语言的民族或是消亡了,或是被同化而丧失了自己的本族语言。

  (二)指示代词that和those也可用于比较结构,表示前面提到的东西,避免重复

  例句: the number of registered participants in this year?s marathon was half that of last year?s. (1996年第7题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,本句的主语是单数名词number,因此后面指代它的代词只能是单数that,谓语用单数。

  译文: 今年登记参加马拉松赛跑的人数是去年的一半。

  例句: his function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision. (XX年第47题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为his function is analogous to that of a judge。定语从句who must accept...修饰a judge,介词短语in as obvious a matter as possible作状语,用来说明reveal的方式,另一个定语从句which led him to his decision修饰the course of reasoning。

  译文: 他的职责与法官相似,必须承担这样的责任: 用尽可能明了的方式来展示自己作出决定的推理过程。

  例句: these bunches of flowers are more beautiful than those we bought yesterday.

  译文: 这些束花比昨天我们买的那些花漂亮多了。

  (三)指示代词such在句中作主语、表语和定语

  例句: such is what you want me to do.

  such are the meanings of authentic love.

  (such作表语时,往往置于句首)

  注意: such用作定语时和副词so的区别在前面副词一节中已提到。

  (四)指示代词same的用法

  在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语,其前与定冠词the连用。

  例句: vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements—usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes nitrogen. (选自1996年cloze test)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 因为是由同样的元素构成——通常是碳、氢、氧,有时还有氮,所以各种维生素都很相似。

  六、疑问代词

  疑问代词用来构成特殊疑问句,其中who(whom/whose)指人,what指物,which指选择对象。

  例句: what?s the difference between love and fondness or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是由or连接的两个简单句(特殊疑问句)。

  译文: 爱情与喜欢有什么区别,幸运和巧合的本质是什么?

  七、关系代词

  关系代词包括who(whom,whose),that和which。that只能引导限制性定语从句,其他关系代词既可引导限制性定语从句也可引导非限制性定语从句,具体用法详见定语从句一节。

  八、不定代词

  (一)both,all

  1. both用于两者,all用于三者及三者以上,其后接名词复数形式,谓语动词用复数,在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。

  例句: similar elements in the prehistoric remains from both areas suggest that indians and their neighbors had maintained distant but real connections even before 1,500 bc.

  分析: 该句是复合句,suggest是主句的谓语动词,that indians and their neighbors...是一个宾语从句。

  译文: 来自两个地区的史前遗迹中的类似成分表明: 印度人和他们的邻居甚至在公元前15XX年前就维持着遥远但真实的联系。

  例句: in the early industrialized countries of europe the process of industrialization—with all the far reaching changes in social patterns that followed—was spread over nearly a century, whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so. (XX年第74题)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,whereas连接两个并列分句,其中前一个分句的主句部分为the process of industrialization was spread over nearly a century,而介词短语with...为主语补足语,定语从句that followed修饰changes。

  译文: 在早先实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的对社会结构有深远影响的变革延续了将近一个世纪,而现如今,一个发展中国家只用十年左右的时间就可以经历同样的过程。

  2. all作代词时,其后谓语动词可以是单数也可以是复数。

  例句: all the information we have collected in relation to that case adds up to very little.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干部分是all the information...adds up to very little,we have collected in relation to that case 是修饰the information的定语从句。

  译文: 我们搜集到的与那件事有关的所有信息都是没有意义的。

  例句: all but he and i are going to attend the meeting.

  译文: 除了我和他之外,所有人都去开会了。

  3. both,all,every和not连用时表示部分否定。

  例句 :but not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system(the“emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是由分号及while连接的并列句,分号相当于连词and,not all...表示部分否定。

  译文: 但并不是大脑的所有部分都参与活动,控制情绪的大脑部位异常活跃,然而控制智力和推理能力的前额皮质却相对平静。

  例句: not everyone sees that process in perspective. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 不是每个人都能正确看待这个过程。

  (二)either, neither, any, each, none, every, some

  1. either和neither是一对反义词,表示“两者中任何一个都(不)”,作名词或形容词。

  用法为:

  either (neither) of the+复数名词+动词单数

  either (neither)+单数名词+动词单数

  如:either/neither of these stories (either/neither story) he told us is as attractive and instructive as that one.

  例句: neither kind of sleep is at all well understood, but rem (rapid eye movements) sleep is assumed to serve some restorative function of the brain.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 人们对这两种睡眠都没有完全了解,但认为快速眼动睡眠有使大脑恢复的功能。

  2. either指两者中的任何一个,仅限两者,而each用于两者以上;either和both可互换使用,但both强调整体。

  例句: the relationship between latin american music and black music in the united states is evident in the unaccented beats that are common to either/both.

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that are common to either/both修饰beats。

  译文: 拉丁美洲音乐同美国黑人音乐的关系明显地表现在这两种音乐各自存在着无重音 节拍这一共同点上。

  例句: we also expect each place to be appropriate to its use.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 我们也希望每个地方都恰如其分。

  3. any和none是一对反义词,表示“三者或三者以上中的任何一个都(不)”,其后谓语动词 的单复数参看例句。

  例句: although professor green?s lectures usually run over the fifty minute period, none of his students ever object(s)as they find his lectures both informative and interesting.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 虽然格林教授的课通常超过规定的50分钟,但他的学生从无一人表示反对,因为他们发现格林的课既富有知识性又有趣。

  例句: if any man here does not agree with me, he should put forward his own plan of improving the living conditions of these people.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 如果在座的有人不赞成我的观点,那么他就应该提出他自己的改善这些人生活条件的方案。

  4. any和some的主要区别在于any用于否定句、条件句和疑问句;some用于肯定句,表示期待对方的肯定答复或以问句形式向对方提出要求或邀请。

  例句: he has failed me so many times that i no longer place any reliance on what he promises. (1997年第23题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 他多次辜负了我的期望,以至于我不再相信他作出的任何承诺。

  例句: the idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是the idea is one of those hypotheses。that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others是idea的同位语从句,that dare not speak its name是hypotheses的定语从句。

  译文: 认为某些群体的智商要高于其他群体是一个无人敢说出来的假想。

  5. every只能用作形容词,everyone指人,而every one既可以指物也可以指人。

  例句: without telephone it would be impossible to carry on the functions of practically every business operation in the whole country. (1998年第32题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,本句隐含了一个与现在情况相反的虚拟语气,without telephone相 当于if there were no telephone。

  译文: 如果没有电话,全国几乎所有的商业运作都不可能正常进行。

  例句: there is an incorrect assumption among scientists and medical people that everyone agrees on what constitutes a benefit to an individual.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that everyone agrees on...作assumption的同位语从句,what constitutes a benefit to an individual作介词on的宾语。

  译文: 科学家和医务人员普遍持有一种不正确的假设,即:人们在什么构成了个人利益问题上意见一致。

  (三)one,the other和another

  1. 两者中一个用one表示,另一个用the other表示,不定数目中的另一个用another表示。

  例句: however, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behavior became markedly different. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为their behavior became markedly different。 when引 导的时间状语从句中又插入了so that引导的目的状语从句,从句中what the other...作observe的宾语。

  译文: 但是当两只猴子被放在隔开但相邻的两个房间中,而且每只猴子还能看到对方用岩石交换了什么物品之后,他们的行为就发生了巨大变化。

  例句: we had a party last month, and it was a lot of fun, so let?s have another one this month.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 上个月我们举行了一场晚会,很有意思。因此,我们这个月再举行一场类似的晚会吧。

  2. 表示三者并对三者加以说明。

  表达方法如下:

  one...another...and the other

  one...a second...and the third

  例句: i have three sisters, one is a nurse, another (a second) is a teacher, and the other (and the third) is a doctor.

  注: 表示四者并对四者都加以说明的表达方式是:one...another...a third...and the fourth (the other)...。

  3. one作代词时,前用形容词或the,this,that,which,any,some,each,every等来修饰,另有one of the+复数名词+单数动词。

  例句: that means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught, so the real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in catch sizes. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,means后的宾语从句省略了连接代词that,what is in the sea作介词 of的宾语,so引导的另一个分句中的the one代替前面的名词difference,分词短语recorded by...作后置定语修饰the one。

  译文: 这意味着更高比例的海洋物种正在被捕捞,因此现在和过去的真正差异可能比根据渔获量的变化所记录的更糟糕。

  例句: one of the responsibilities of the coast guard is to make sure that all ships dutifully follow traffic rules in busy harbors. (XX年第13题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,从句that all ships...harbors作make sure的宾语。

  译文: 海岸警卫队的责任之一就是确保所有船只在繁忙的港口严格遵守航运规则。

  注意: that和one都可用来代表句子前面部分中的名词以避免重复: one指代可数名词, 为不确定指代,其复数形式为ones;that指代可数和不可数名词,为确定指代,其复数形式为those。

  例句: no bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中that代替前面的bread,分词短语earned by his own labor作定语修饰that。

  译文: 什么面包也不如自己劳动挣得的面包香。

  例句: julia tried to find a good book on physics, but the bookstore she went to yesterday did not have one.

  分析: 该句是并列句,其中第二个分句是一个复合句,she went to yesterday是修饰the bookstore的定语从句。

  译文: 朱丽亚想找一本物理学方面的好书,但昨天她去的那家书店没有。

  4. another后接单数名词,表示的意思是“另一个,又一个(one more);另外的,别的(some other);不同的(a different)”。

  例句: her mother will be back in another moment, and we have to wait for her.

  分析: 本句是以and连接的并列句。

  译文: 她妈妈再过一会儿就回来,我们还是等等她吧。

  例句: we will visit the history museum another day.

  译文: 我们改天参观历史博物馆。

  例句: he is planning another tour abroad, yet his passport will expire at the end of this month. (1998年第34题)

  分析: 该句是由yet连接的并列句。

  译文: 他正计划再到国外去旅游,但是他的护照这个月底就到期了。

  5. other通常接复数名词,在any other,every other, no other,some other,the other,one other后,名词也可用单数形式。

  例句: as far as i am concerned, his politics are rather conservative compared with other politicians?. (1997年第19题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中as far as i am concerned为插入语,other politicians?相当于other politicians? politics,分词短语compared with other politicians?在句中作状语表示时间或条件,相当于when/if his politics are compared with other politicians?。

  译文: 依我看,与其他政治家的政治观点相比,他的观点更加保守。

  例句: no other book has had a greater influence on my life.

  译文: 任何书对我一生的影响都没有这本书大。

  例句: wilson found there was only one other guest besides himself.

  译文: 威尔逊发现除了他自己外只有一个客人。

  注意: other与数目连用时其位置如下:

  基数词+ other+复数名词;

  the other+基数词+复数名词或the+基数词+other+复数名词。

  (四)few,a few; little,a little

  few和a few修饰可数名词;little和a little修饰不可数名词;a few和a little具有肯定含义;few和little具有否定含义;the few和the little表示肯定含义。

  例句: a few premiers are suspicious of any federal provincial deal making.(选自XX年part b)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 一些省督们对由联邦政府联合各省进行谈判的做法心存怀疑。

  例句: the roles expected of old people in such a setting give too few psychological satisfactions for normal happiness. (XX年第7题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中分词短语expected of old people在句中作定语修饰the roles。

  译文: 在此情况下,对老年人角色的期望使得他们几乎无法得到心理上的满足,也就无法享受正常的幸福生活。

  例句: living in the central australian desert has its problems, of which obtaining water is not the least.

  分析: 该句是复合句,of which obtaining water is...是一个非限制性定语从句修饰 problems,the least是the little的最高级表示肯定意义。

  译文: 居住在澳大利亚沙漠中心有其自身的问题,其中,获取水是很严峻的问题。

  例句: they may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment. (XX年第50题)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,定语从句which involve moral judgment修饰problems,but前后是两个并列句。

  译文: 他们可以教得很好,而且不仅仅是为了挣薪水,但他们大多数人却很少或没有对需要进行道德判断的关于人的问题讲行独立思考。

  (五)most

  most表示大多数、大部分或最大数量、最大程度等,作代词、名词、形容词和副词。

  例句:it?s hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because reese and angelina make it look so glamorous:most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析:该句是复合句。在主句中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children;在原因状语从句中,it代表前面提到的to want children;冒号后的内容是对前面内容的解释。

  译文:很难想象,仅仅因为里斯和安吉丽娜使“生孩子”看起来颇具魅力,很多人就愚蠢地跟风效仿:大多数成年人都明白抚养孩子并不像理发那样简单。

  例句: most newspapers, while devoting the major part of their space to recent events, usually manage to find room on the inside pages for articles on some interesting topics. (XX年第17题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主句为most newspapers usually manage to find room on the inside pages...topics。从句while后的完整形式应为while they are devoting the major part of their space to recent events。

  译文: 大多数报纸将主要版面用来报道近期发生的事件,但通常也会在内页留出空间刊登一些趣闻。

  例句: most often the reason for this is that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant, whose brain is programmed to learn language rapidly.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant在句中充当表语从句,定语从句whose brain is...rapidly修饰the infant。

  译文: 其原因往往是母亲对大脑已做好快速学习语言准备的婴儿所发出的信号不敏感。

  1. 单独使用时,most前无冠词。

  例句: some of the people stayed behind, but most went.

  分析: most=most people,动词用复数。

  2. most后带有限制性定语从句时,前加the。

  例句: the most this hall can seat is 1,000.

  分析: 这是一个复合句,this hall can seat这个定语从句修饰the most。seat是动词,意为“为……提供座位”。

  译文: 这个大厅最多能容纳一千人。

  3. most of the+复数名词表示“大多数……”;most of+形容词性物主代词+单数名词表示“大部分……”。

  例句: mr.pollard has visited most of the countries in europe.

  译文: 波勒德先生已经访问了欧洲大多数国家。

  例句: most of her book deals with problems in political economy.

  译文: 她的书大部分都是论述政治经济方面的问题的。

  例句: moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much. (选自1998年text 2)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,and前一分句中that companies make是一定语从句修饰the changes,后一分句中this指代前面句子的所有内容,冒号后的内容作解释。

  译文: 此外,公司改革的目的大部分是为了盈利,这种需求并不一定总是能够提高生产率: 转入新的市场或改善产品质量也能获得同样的效果。

  4. most作副词时构成形容词或副词的最高级;在通俗英语中most=very,修饰形容词或副词,most与mostly的区别在于后者作“大部分”讲(=for the most part)。

  例句: the eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all indians but seems to be indifferent to the welfare of his animals. (XX年第14题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,is与seems to是两个并列谓语。

  译文: 爱斯基摩人可能是所有印第安人中最信任别人也最体贴他人的人,然而他们对自己的动物的福利却好像漠不关心。

  例句: what mr.jelly said is mostly(=for the most part) correct.

  译文: 杰勒先生说的话大部分是正确的。

  5. most+名词,表示泛指;most of the+名词,表示特指。

  例句: most chinese like fast food.(泛指)

  most of the people in this district are fond of cctv5.(特指)

  九、连接代词

  连接代词包括who, whom, whose, what, which, that。其中除what外,其他连接代词也可作关系代词,其区别在于连接代词引导的是主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句等名词性从句,而关系代词引导的是定语从句。

  (一)引导主语从句

  例句: that the sun and not the earth is the center of our planetary system was a difficult concept to grasp in the middle ages.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the sun and not the earth is the center of our planetary system在句中充当主语。

  译文: 太阳是我们行星系的中心(而不是地球)这一概念在中世纪是很难让人明白的。

  例句: it may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience;but this effect is not a part of its original motive. (XX年第46题)

  分析: 该句是由转折连词but连接的并列句,其中第一个分句中it作形式主语,真正的主语是that the measure of the worth...,of any social institution是worth的后置定语,in enlarging and improving experience是its effect的后置定语。

  译文: 或许可以说,要衡量任何一种社会制度的价值就要看它在丰富和提升人们经验方面的影响,但是这种影响并不是其最初动机的一部分。

  (二)引导宾语从句

  例句: he adds humbly that perhaps he was“superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully”. (XX年第49题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that引导的宾语从句结构是he was superior to..., 其中包含了由which引导的定语从句,in noticing things与in observing them carefully是并列结构。

  译文: 他又自谦地说,或许自己“在注意到容易被忽略的事物,并对其加以仔细观察方面优于常人”。

  例句: i apologize if i had offended you, but i assure you it was unintentional. (1998年第3题)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,其中短语assure sb. that...意为“向某人保证某事”。

  译文: 如果我冒犯了你,我向你道歉,但我保证那不是故意的。

  (三)引导表语从句

  例句:one of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that gilbert is comparatively little known. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析:该句是复合句。其中,why the appointment came as such a surprise是一个定语从句,修饰reasons,however作插入语,介词短语as such a surprise作状语,修饰came;主句的主干部分是one of the reasons is that gilbert is comparatively little known。

  译文: 然而,该任命显得如此突然的原因之一就是吉尔伯特比较不为人知。

  例句: the notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean because they have been looking back only a relatively short time into the past. (选自XX年text3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that people have failed to...changes是一个表语从句,which have happened in the ocean作changes的定语,because后引导一个原因状语从句。

  译文: 这个概念是说人们没有注意到发生在海洋里的巨大变化,因为人们只是回顾了过去很短一段时间。

  (四)同位语从句(通常由that引导,也可由whether,what,when,where,why,how引导,进一步说明其前名词的具体内容和含义)

  例句:allen?s contribution was to take an assumption we all share—that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts—and reveal its erroneous nature. (XX年第46题)

  分析:该句是复合句,主干部分是allen?s contribution was to take an assumption and reveal its erroneous nature。其中we all share是一个定语从句,修饰assumption;that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts是一个同位语从句,与assumption为同位语关系。

  译文:爱伦的贡献在于他提出了一个公认的假设并揭示了其错误本质,即“我们不是机器人,因此我们能控制自己的思想”。

  例句: but the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the new media. (XX年第48题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干结构为the idea...rests on an understanding..., that the journalist must...an ordinary citizen是the idea的同位语从句。

  译文: 新闻记者应该比普通公民更加透彻地了解法律,但这种看法是基于他们对新闻媒体业已确立的规约和特殊责任的理解。

  (五)whatever, who(m)ever, whichever

  连接代词what+ever指不定数目中无论什么,用于物;who(m)+ever指不定数目中无沦是谁,用于人;which+ever指确定数目中无论哪一个,用于人或物。

  例句: now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made. (选自XX年part b)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out..., whatever outline you have made作flesh out(使充实、具体化)的宾语,从句中develop...into意思是“发展成;变成”。前半部分是now that引导的让步状语从句。

  译文: 既然你已经将一个主题拓展成了一个初步的论题,那么你就可以整合笔记内容,丰富自己拟定的提纲。

  例句: donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the“great game”of espionage—spying as a“profession”. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,whatever tools came to...作using的宾语,破折号后的内容是对espionage的解释说明。

  译文: 多诺万认为在职业间谍活动这一“伟大事业”中可以利用任何有用的工具。

  介词

  介词是一种表示名词和句中其他词之间关系的词,它不能单独作句子成分,后接名词、代词等作其宾语。

  一、介词搭配

  介词常与名词、动词、形容词等搭配。

  (一)与名词搭配

  如:

  in deficit (赤字,逆差)

  approach to (……的方法)

  in the wake of (紧紧跟随,随着……而来)

  from scratch (从零开始)

  例句: china also signed a long term trade agreement with the eec in 1978 while trade with the usa has increased rapidly in the wake of the normalization of diplomatic relations at the beginning of 1979.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 1978年中国还与欧洲经济共同体签署了长期贸易协议;随着1979年初与美国外交关系正常化的到来,中国与美国的贸易也迅速增长。

  (二)与动词搭配

  如:

  move along (沿着)

  bustle about (匆忙)

  buoy up (上升)

  rein in (抑制)

  pass down (使流传)

  例句: the decline was partly caused by india?s reining in of its budget deficit and the short term effects of the implementation of strong emergency stabilization measures.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 衰退的部分原因是印度抑制其预算赤字及推行强有力的紧急稳定措施的短期效果。

  例句: yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the y chromosome inherited through men in a father?s line or mitochondrial dna, which is passed down only from mothers. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,句子主干是most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either...or...引导的并列短语作a single lineage的同位语,which is passed down only from mothers是一个修饰mitochondrial dna的非限制性定语从句。

  译文: 然而,许多血统检测仅仅考虑一个单一的血统,要么是遗传来自父亲家庭里的y染色体,要么是仅从母亲那里遗传下来的线粒体dna。

  (三)与形容词搭配

  如:

  amenable to (对……负责)

  conducive to (对……有益)

  awkward for (对……不便,对……不合适)

  例句: korea traditionally has made things awkward for foreigners in terms of its financial systems, its real estate laws and so forth.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 韩国传统上一直在金融体制、不动产法等方面让外国人感到极不方便。

  二、介词分类

  (一)简单介词

  介词由一个单词构成,常见的有:

  aboutaboveacross

  afteragainstalong

  among(a)roundas

  atbeforebehind

  belowbeneathbeside(s)

  betweenbeyond but

  byconsidering(考虑到) concerning(关于)

  despite(尽管,任凭) downduring

  except for from

  in insideinto

  including likenear

  of offon

  opposite outsideover

  past regarding(关于)since

  through tillthroughout

  to toward(s)under

  upwithwithin

  without

  例句: studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response: causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions. (选自XX年text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分为studies...have shown that...。分词causing...作状语表示伴随,其逻辑主语是sex hormones。

  译文: 对人和动物的研究已经表明性激素荷尔蒙以某种方式会影响对压力的反应;结果造 成在同等条件下,妇女处于压力下会比男人产生更多的诱发性的化学物质。

  例句: of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like us weekly and people present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like bullock. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句。that celebrity magazines like us weekly and people present是一个定语从句,修饰image of parenthood,介词短语like us weekly and people作后置定语,修饰celebrity magazines。

  译文: 当然,《我们周刊》、《人物》等名人杂志中呈现出来的父母形象非常不切实际,尤其当母亲是布洛克这样的单亲妈妈时更是如此。

  (二)成语介词

  成语介词由两个或两个以上的单词构成。

  如:

  according toahead ofalong with

  apart fromas foras to

  because ofdue toexcept for

  in view ofirrespective of(无论)out of

  previous toprior tothanks to

  together withup toby means of

  by way offor the sake ofin the event of

  in front ofinstead ofon the point of

  on account ofowing towith a view to(为了)

  with regard toas well asin addition to

  other thanapart from

  例句: he must store a large quantity of grain instead of consuming all his grain immediately. (选自XX年cloze test)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 他必须储存大量的粮食,而不是马上将其全部消耗掉。

  例句: corporations and labor unions have conferred great benefits upon their employees and members as well as upon the general public. (1999年第37题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 公司和工会为公司员工、工会成员和广大公众都带来了极大的利益。

  三、介词短语的用法

  介词在句中不能独立使用,它后面必须接一个宾语构成介宾短语,又称介词词组,在句中可作定语、表语、状语和宾语补足语。

  (一)定语(后置修饰语)

  例句: china?s powerful ministry of foreign economic relations and trade will be monitoring trade signals from the new clinton administration.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 强大的中国对外经济关系与贸易部将密切注视克林顿新政府的贸易动向。

  例句: at times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of features and editorials.

  分析: 该句是复合句,在than后面省略了more care goes。

  译文: 有时,报纸杂志的广告创作比特写和社论写作更费心。

  (二)表语(用于系动词be, look, remain后)

  例句: many of the actors and actresses are on location now.

  译文: 许多男女演员现在正在拍外景。

  例句: in speaking, the choice of words is of the utmost importance.

  译文: 说话时,选词是最重要的。

  (三)状语(修饰谓语动词或整个句子,可置于句首、句中、句末)

  例句: in the long run, however, this hurry to shed full time staff may be as harmful to industry as it is to the workforce. (XX年第15题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 但是从长远来看,草率地解雇全职员工,既不利于职工,也有害于产业。

  例句: the findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radically higher productivity and, as a result,radically higher standards of living. (选自XX年text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,句子主干是the findings of a research institution have shown that...。that workers...of living是have shown的宾语,workers是宾语从句的主语,谓语部分是can be trained,radically higher standards of living和radically higher productivity是achieve的并列宾语。

  译文: 一家研究机构的研究结果一致表明,所有国家的工人都可以在岗位上接受培训以获得极高的生产率,从而极大地提高生活水平。

  例句: but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us. (XX年第47题)

  分析: 句子主干是we have drawn near the point。介词短语of admitting that...作point的后置定语,that...从句作admit的宾语从句,regardless of...作让步状语。其中draw near意为“接近,靠近”;intrinsic right意为天生的(固有的)权利;economic advantage意为“经济利益,经济优势”。

  译文: 但是,我们至少已经承认了这样一种观点: 不管鸟类对我们是否有经济利益,生存都是它们固有的权利。

  (四)补足语

  例句: a really powerful speaker can work up the feelings of the audience to the fever of excitement.

  分析: 该句是简单句,介词短语to the fever of excitement作宾语the feelings的补足语。

  译文: 一个真正有感召力的演讲者能激起听众的激情。

  例句: observations were made of the children at the beginning and at the end of pre school and first grade. (1996年第4题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,本句的主动形式为people made observations of the children...。短语make observations of意为“观察、记录某人某事”。

  译文: 观察报告开头是关于儿童的问题,结尾是关于学龄前儿童和小学一年级学生的问题。

  四、考研常用介词的基本用法

  (一)in

  1. 表示较长的一段时间,如年、季节、月、周等。

  in XX

  in five months

  in the second year

  2. 表示在……内或较大的地方。

  in the city

  in the classroom

  3. 表示再过若干时间,仅用于将来时态。

  in three days (三天后)

  4. 表示用……,以……。

  speak in chinese (用汉语说)

  write in red (用红墨水写)

  5. 表示衣着特征。

  be in red (穿着红衣服)

  be in one?s sixties (在某人60多岁的时候)

  6. 在……方面。

  in ethics

  in spelling

  7. 表示具体的环境、情况等。

  to go out in the wind

  8. 表方向(朝)。

  in all directions

  (二)at

  1. (表时间、年龄等)在,当。

  at day break, at the age of eight

  2. (表地点、位置、场合)在,于。

  at the railway station

  at the opening ceremony

  at 89 jitai road

  3. (表示速度、价格、比率等)以。

  at the full speed

  at a lower price

  at the rate of 125 miles an hour

  4. (表示目标、方向等)对,向。

  rush at

  aim at

  5. 指离某事物的距离。

  a bus at fifty meters

  6. 表活动情况,状态。

  at war

  (三)by

  1. 靠近某人(物)。

  by the lake

  sit by me

  2. 不迟于,到……为止。

  by next week

  3. 按照(某事物),根据。

  by one?s watch

  4. 沿……,通过。

  by the rear door

  by the nearest road

  5. (用于被动式)被……,受……,因……。

  be seen to by the nurse

  6. 表运输或取道的方式。

  by air/land/bus

  (四)on

  1. 在……日期(表示具体的某天或某天的上、下午)。

  on monday

  on the first of october

  2. 在……上(与物体接触)。

  on the desk

  3. 论述,关于。

  on friendship

  a lecture on cet 4

  4. 一……就(表示前后紧接的时间关系)。

  on hearing the bad news...

  5. 通过,以……方式。

  on the radio

  broadcast on the tv

  6. 正在……,处于……状态。

  on strike

  on business出差

  7. 朝,向。

  smile on sb. (对……赞许)

  marching on beijing (向北京出发)

  (五)above

  1. 在……上方,比……高(与below相反)。

  a slogan above the blackboard

  above the horizon

  2. 超过,……以上。

  above the average temperature

  above two tons

  3. ……的能力所不能及。

  above one?s responsibility

  (六)over

  1. 在……上面(表示物体垂直上方,与under相反)。

  be hanging over the desk

  2. 超过,多于。

  over two meters tall

  have advantages over...

  3. 全面,遍及。

  all over the country

  4. 在……期间(表示时间流逝)。

  over lunch

  5. 因为,关于。

  a quarrel over money

  6. 跨越,越过。

  a plane flying over my school

  7. 在……对面。

  over the river

  over the sea

  8. 控制,支配着。

  to reign over the island

  to win the victory over the enemy

  (七)under

  1. 在……下方(表垂直下方与物体可接触,也可不接触,和over相反)。

  under the tree

  under her arm

  2. (数量、金额、年龄等)低于,少于,在……以下,未满……的。

  under 35 years of age

  under $60

  3. 在……影响下,由……控制(或管理、经营)。

  under all weather conditions

  under the leadership of communist party

  4. 在……中。

  under control

  under discussion

  5. 遭受(重担、苦难等)。

  under tyranny

  under an operation

  6. 在(责任、义务等)范围内,受……约束。

  under a vow

  be placed under restraint

  7. 根据、按照(协议、法律或制度)。

  under the law

  under the trade agreement

  (八) for

  1. 向,以……为目的地,开往,归于。

  for edinburgh

  for you

  2. 为了,为求。

  for fame

  for one?s living

  for a walk

  3. 为……用,用于,适于。

  for boys

  for sale

  for nothing

  4. 赞成,有利于。

  for or against the plan

  for the health

  5. 因为,由于。

  be punished for drunken driving

  dance for joy

  6. 代替,代表。

  to act for a person

  b stands for “born”

  7. 在……期间,持续到。

  for weeks

  for three miles

  8. 作为……代价,与……交换。

  to pay $10 for the picture

  to give blow for blow挨了打而还手(以牙还牙)

  9. 至于,关于。

  for my part

  be hard up for money

  10.鉴于,就比较而言,就……而论;达到……数量。

  be cool for a summer day to draw him for$1,000

  五、考研常见介词辨析

  (一)as,like

  作介词时as强调同类或完全相似,另有“作为,按照”之意,like强调比较,表示“像……一样”。

  例句: in the early 1900s in north america, german born american anthropologist franz boas developed a new theory of culture known as historical particularism. (选自XX年part b)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中known as historical particularism是分词作后置定语,相当于 which was known as...。

  译文: 20世纪早期,在北美,德裔美国人类学家弗朗茨·博厄斯阐述了一种新的文化理论,被称作“历史特殊论”。

  例句: besides the ninety or so learned ministers who came to massachusetts churches in the decade after 1629, there were political leaders like john winthrop, an educated gentleman, lawyer, and official of the crown before he journeyed to boston. (选自XX年text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,句子主干是there were political leaders like john winthrop,besides the ninety...after 1629作状语,表示伴随情况,who came to...1629是修饰ministers的定语从句,an educated gentleman,lawyer,and official of the crown是john winthrop的同位语,before引导一个时间状语从句。

  译文: 除了在1629年之后的十年中来到马萨诸塞教堂的90余位很有学问的牧师之外,还有像约翰·温斯罗普这样的政治领袖。在来到波士顿之前,他是一名受过教育的绅士、律师,他还是英国皇室的官员。

  例句: a large fish was slowly swimming through the water, its tail swinging back and forth like the pendulum of a clock.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中its tail swinging是一独立主格结构,在句中作状语,表示伴随。

  译文: 一条大鱼在水中缓缓游动,尾巴像钟摆一样来回晃动。

  例句: thus, the anthropological concept of “culture”, like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding. (XX年第65题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分为the anthropological concept of “culture” is an abstract concept。定语从句which makes possible...understanding修饰an abstract concept。

  译文: 因此,人类学关于“文化”的概念就像数学中“集合”的概念一样,是一个使大量的具体研究和认识成为可能的抽象概念。

  (二)despite,in spite of

  两者意义相似,可互换使用,表示“尽管”,但despite后不能接of。

  例句: despite/in spite of the wide range of reading material specially written or adapted for language learning purposes, there is yet no comprehensive systematic program for the reading skills.

  分析: 该句是简单句。despite/in spite of...在句中作状语表示让步;written or adapted...purposes 作material的后置定语。

  译文: 尽管有各种专门为语言学习撰写或改编的阅读材料,但在阅读技巧方面还没有系统的综合课程。

  例句: despite/in spite of much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood. (1996年第16题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that are not fully understood修饰elements;介词短语in the life cycle of the insect在句中作状语。

  译文: 尽管做了大量研究,但昆虫的生活周期中仍有某些元素未被人们完全理解。

  (三)except,except for

  两者都表示“除外”。如果排除之物与所述之物属于同类时,两者可通用,但如果排除之物与所述之物不属于同类时,则只能用except for。

  例句: hudson said he would not kill a living thing except for the motive of hunger. (1997年第37题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 哈德逊说除非是饿极了,否则他不会杀生。

  例句: he saw little evidence of a strategy, except for willingness to listen to protectionist appeals from the automobile.

  分析: 该句是简单句,介词短语from the automobile在句中作定语修饰appeals。

  译文: 他认为一项策略只有愿意倾听来自汽车行业的贸易保护主义者的申诉才能有证据支持。

  (四)due to, owing to, because of

  它们都表示“由于……”之意。due to+名词构成的介词短语可作表语、定语或状语;owing to+名词构成的介词短语只作表语或状语,如果作状语放在句首时,一般只用owing to引出的介词短语;because of+名词构成的介词短语通常用作状语,但当主语不是一个名词而是一个事实时,because of短语也可以用作表语。

  例句: during an earthquake, the great part of damage and loss of life has been due to/ owing to collapse of buildings and effect of rockslides, floods, diseases, and other phenomena resulting from earthquakes, rather than from the quakes themselves.

  分析: 该句是简单句。rather than后省略了resulting;而resulting from earthquakes作other phenomena的后置定语。

  译文: 在地震中,大量的损失和人员伤亡都是由于地震引发的房屋倒塌、滑坡、洪水、疾病和其他一些现象造成的,而不是地震本身所造成的。

  例句: when the work is done, a climate of accident free operations is established where time lost due to injuries is kept at a minimum. (选自1999年cloze test)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中where time lost due to injuries is kept at a minimum为定语从句修饰a climate,过去分词lost作time的后置定语。

  译文: 当上述工作圆满完成时,一个无事故的运作环境便建立起来了。在这里,因人员伤害而损失的时间被控制到最低水平。

  例句: because of its intimacy, radio is usually more than just a medium;it is company. (XX年第20题)

  分析: 该句是并列句,分号相当于转折连词but。

  译文: 因为与人们的生活关系密切,收音机通常不仅仅是一种传媒工具,还是一个伙伴。

  (五)by,till,until

  三者都表示时间范围。by表示到某时,某事或动作已完成,常与完成时态连用;till表示动作或状态持续到某时,口语中常用,通常不用于句首;until与till是同义词,语气庄重,多用于句首表示强调。until与till用作介词时后接表示时间的名词,不能接表示地点的名词。

  例句: the social security retirement program is made up of two trust funds, the larger of which could go penniless by next year. (1997年第1题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。the larger of which...是一非限制性定语从句,修饰two trust funds。

  译文: 社会退休保障计划由两笔信托基金组成,其中较大的一笔到明年可能会分文不剩。

  例句: the school authorities did not announce the decision till yesterday afternoon.(或until yesterday afternoon, the school authorities did not announce the decision. )

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 校方直到昨天下午才公布了该决定。

  (六)of,about, on

  三者都可译为“关于”,但在用法上有区别。of 一般只表示“提及”某人、某事,不涉及详情;about表示“论及”某人、某事,涉及详情;on表示“论及”详情,比about所涉及的事情更为详细,多用于较正式的文件,尤其在演说或学术论文中。

  例句: the logic of scientific development is such that separate groups of men working on the same problem in far scattered laboratories are likely to arrive at the same answer at the same time. (1998年第16题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。that...at the same time是结果状语从句;working on the same problem in far scattered laboratories作men的后置定语。

  译文: 科学的发展如此富有逻辑性,以至于人们在极为分散的实验室里研究同一课题,却有可能在同一时间得出相同的答案。

  例句: on the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news. (XX年第47题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为it links these concepts to everyday realities。which后的定语从句修饰a manner,as后的状语从句表示时间。

  译文: 另一方面,这一学科把这些概念结合到日常生活中,这与新闻记者每天报道和评论新闻时的做法是相同的。

  例句: just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete, that it?s ok to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. (选自XX年text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主句为voices now come from many quarters。现在分词insisting作主语voices的补足语,后接两个宾语从句;until后是一时间状语从句。

  译文: 和吸烟的问题一样,四面八方传来的声音坚持认为有关全球变暖的科学说法不全面,在不确定之前,向大气中排放废气没什么大不了的。

  (七)in,with,of

  在描述人时:in表示衣着;with表示携带某物或生理特征或某种品质;of表示性格特征或年龄。如:be in green/a man of wisdom(a lady of virtue) /a girl of 18/a child with a big head。

  例句: the mayor is a woman with great integrity and therefore deserves our political and financial support. (XX年第35题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,is和deserves是两个并列谓语动词;介词短语with great integrity修饰a woman。

  译文: 这位市长是个非常正直的女性,因而值得我们在政治上和经济上给予帮助。

  注意: with和of表示属性、特征时,of后通常接抽象名词;with后常接具体名词。

  六、小品词短语

  当一个介词后无宾语时,它的词性就转化成副词,称为小品词(particle)。试比较:

  we live in the same building.

  come in,please!

  the soldiers sat around the table.

  he looked around, but to his surprise, he saw his father coming to this way.

  例句: yet much had happened between. (选自XX年use of english)

  分析: 该句是简单句。between为小品词,意为“(……时间)之间”。

  译文: 在此(段时间)之间发生了很多事。

  例句: as i?ll be away for at least a year, i?d appreciate hearing from you now and then telling me how everyone is getting along. (XX年第1题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。主句中谓语动词appreciate后接动名词hearing和telling作其宾语,介词along后无宾语,所以称为小品词。从句how everyone is getting along作tell 的间接宾语。

  译文: 由于我至少有一年的时间不在这里,如果你能时常来信告诉我每个人的生活情况,我将不胜感激。